Document Type : Research Paper
Ph.D. Department of Range management, Faculty of Natural Resources, Sari Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources University, Sari, Iran
Associate Professor, Department of Rangeland, Faculty of Natural Resources, Sari Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources University, Sari, Iran
Associate Professor of Rangeland Department, Faculty of Natural Resources, Sari University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources, Sari, Iran
Today, with the increase of environmental problems and crises, it has increased the importance of discussion and research on environmental issues. Changes that occur in human behavior in the environment can cause environmental degradation. To prevent the destruction of the environment, human behavior must change to Eco-friendly behavior. Achieving behavioral change requires understanding people's attitudes toward the environment. The purpose of this study is to investigate the factors affecting the tourists’ environmentally friendly behavior in Sorkhabad Savadkuh rangelands. The research method was descriptive-survey and the data collection tool was a questionnaire whose validity was confirmed by the views of professors and relevant experts and its reliability was confirmed by Cronbach's alpha test. Using Cochran's random method and statistics, 86 tourists were selected as the sample. Data analysis was performed using SPSS22 software and Smart PLS software. The results obtained from calculating the correlation coefficient indicate significant positive relationship between environmental perception and environmental behavior of tourists. The results of stepwise regression analysis showed that the environmental impact variable (0.444) had the greatest effect on the environmental behavior variable. In other words, a higher level of has led to more responsible environmental behavior among tourists in that area. According to the structural equation modeling findings, the variables of perception, attitude and environmental knowledge affect the environmental behavior variable with coefficients of 0.768, 0.031 and 0.210, respectively.
Human misuse of nature and its resources has caused many natural ecosystems to face many environmental problems, including climate change, drought, soil erosion, degradation of wildlife habitats, biodiversity loss, and vegetation loss. has done. To solve these problems, various solutions were proposed, most of which were technological, but today, due to the high cost of these methods, researchers have turned to changing people's lifestyles and behavioral solutions. In the present century, environmental behaviors as one of the most important and influential factors on the environment have been considered by many environmental sociologists. Many scientists believe that the solution to environmental crises should be sought in changing human behavior, attitudes and lifestyles.
In this study, the results of determining the effect of variables affecting the environmental behaviors of tourists in the Sorkhabad region presented. Also, to improve the behavior of tourists, it is necessary to know the effective factors and variables in this field. After reviewing the literature review and the planned behavior model of Ajzen & Fishbein research, the conceptual model of the research was presented. Then, the relationships between four latent Variable (knowledge variables, attitudes and perceptions, environmental behavior) and 32 observed variables were examined to determine the existence or non-existence of a relationship between them.
The research method is survey and the data collection tool is a questionnaire. The questionnaire questions were designed based on the Likert scale of five options and its reliability was calculated through Cronbach's alpha test. The statistical population of Sorkhabad region included 110 visitors, which was determined using Cochran formula, the sample size was 86 people.
Data analysis was performed using Smart-PLS and SPSS software. To test the conceptual model as well as the research hypotheses, structural equation modeling based on the partial least squares method has been used. Smart PLS3 software was used for this purpose. Structural equation modeling is a technique for analyzing data that is designed to evaluate the relationships between two types of variables (observed and latent variables). A very valuable feature of the structural equation model is the simultaneous analysis and processing of relationships between model variables
The results of correlation test showed that there is a positive and significant correlation between environmental perception with environmental behavior, which among the three variables studied, perception with a correlation coefficient of 0.438 has the highest correlation with environmental behavior. For two variables, knowledge and attitude were obtained with a correlation coefficient of 0.211 and 0.218, respectively. In general, it can be said that the studied variables reinforce environmentally responsible behaviors and promote responsibility towards the environment (Table 3).
The data of the results related to the Regression showed that there is a linear and significant relationship between the two variables of environmental perception and behavior. Also, in total, the variable explains the perception of 0.444 of changes in environmental behavior (Table 4, 5).
According to the presented results from structural equation modeling showed that there is a positive and significant relationship between the independent variable of perception with the dependent variable of environmental behavior. Perception variable with a path coefficient of 0.768 had the most direct effect on environmental behavior and the path coefficient of two variables of attitude and knowledge were 0.031 and 0.210, respectively (Figure 2, 3).
The findings of this study confirm the theoretical framework. Based on these findings, the variables of knowledge, attitude and perception have relationship with environmental behavior. The results obtained from the environmental behavior regression model show that environmental perception explains a greater share of behavior changes. This shows that in society, plays an important role in environmental behavior. As a result, in order to improve pro-environmental behavior, it is necessary to shift people's perception towards naturalism and improve the quality of environmental education. Environmental education is one of the most important ways to change the variables affecting environmental behavior. In this way, education by promoting environmental knowledge in society and creating a positive attitude in individuals causes each individual to consider themselves responsible for protecting the environment and strive to improve and sustain the environment.
Concerns about the environmental growth crisis will not only have consequences for the natural world, but also for human society. This approach considers attention to the environment as necessary as political and economic processes to understand social conditions. Considering that knowledge, environmental attitude has a positive effect on the formation of greater understanding of society and thus on responsible environmental behavior, environmental knowledge is suggested in different courses and in educational places, in order to get acquainted. And further increase awareness to be seriously designed and implemented.