Document Type : Research Paper
Associate Professor of Geography and Rural Planning, Faculty of Geographical Sciences, Kharazmi University, Tehran, Iran
Ph.D. Student in Geography and Rural Planning, Faculty of Geographical Sciences, Kharazmi University, Tehran, Iran.
Currently the geographical spread of Covid 19 in different parts of the world is continuing rapidly. The spread of coronavirus can have negative consequences at the macro and micro levels of rural communities and involve them in economic, social and even environmental issues.The prevalence of this phenomenon has led institutions, organizations and other bodies, as a group or even individually, to take fundamental steps to prevent its spread. Therefore, with the epidemic of corona in rural areas, the economic, social and environmental dimensions have been severely affected, and the appropriate measures of rural working groups in these areas will alleviate the suffering of some villagers. In the agenda of various working groups,including government and governmental officials,specialized and non-specialized groups and organizations, spontaneous groups of people in real and virtual space, organizations and non-governmental organizations, etc. were placed and all with Intensity and weakness have taken steps towards the realization of this important. The issues that involve all areas and elements of the country are multifaceted issues and the consequences of this phenomenon are crystallized in various social, cultural, political and economic areas, and it is obvious that its management and control require accurate information and cognition. These are the effects and consequences. In this regard, the performance of institutions and organizations in the villages is very important because these are the institutions and organizations that can plan for development and guidance of the rural community in terms of structure-function, or slow or stop the development process with improper performance. There is a great variety of measures to reduce injuries and prevent coronation in rural areas, which seems to be very prominent and extensive in the face of the crisis, the role of institutions and organizations in helping and supporting the government and the people. In fact, the most optimistic ways to limit the spread of the disease (it can be the efforts of working groups) are to encourage people to minimize traffic and voluntary quarantine. Therefore, considering the position of villages, the development of which will contribute to regional and national development, the necessity and importance of examining the performance of institutions and organizations in the economic, social, environmental and physical dimensions of villages are determined.Therefore, measuring the performance of rural working groups (including institutions, organizations, grassroots groups,organizations, etc.) in dealing with the spread of coronavirus in rural areas and its effective dimensions has formed the main research question.
The present research is descriptive-analytical in terms of method and its purpose is applied. Theoretical information is obtained by documentary-library method with reference to articles and other sources and quantitative data is based on first-hand information and through semi-structured interview method And has been collected using a questionnaire tool. Therefore, the instrument used in the survey method was a questionnaire based on the Likert scale, which was prepared and developed after reviewing the studies conducted in this field and interviewing experts. The statistical population corresponds to the rural households of Khoshab city. Due to the large number of villages (70 villages), first a list of villages was prepared and then 4 villages (Bulqanabad, Robat Jaz, Neshib and Qarzi) were selected as a sample based on stratified random sampling based on Cochran's formula. Of these 4 villages with 1600 households, 140 households were determined as the sample size of the study .Continuing the activities of institutions and organizations such as council, Dehyar,Jihad-e-Keshavarzi, natural resources,educational institutions, cultural institutions, rural youth organizations, donors, etc. in social, economic and environmental dimensions according to Likert 5 options It was formed with 14 indicators. All of these institutions and organizations are somehow related to the villages and are effective in counteracting the spread of the coronavirus in the villages. These effects are clear and measurable in the context of their tasks. In order to analyze the collected data according to the objectives and questions of the research, from descriptive statistics and inferential statistics (K-S test and T), from the Vickor model to prioritize villages in terms of the effectiveness of institutions and organizations. Corona was used to deal with the spread of the virus, SPSS software was used for statistical operations and data processing, and GIS software was used to map the study area.
Therefore,the general performance of rural working groups in dealing with the spread of coronavirus, had a significant level of less than 0.05. In summary, the performance of institutions and organizations in the villages of Khoshab city in dealing with the corona outbreak have been effective in social, environmental and economic dimensions, respectively, and their performance has been satisfactory from the perspective of villagers. Then, in order to rank the studied villages in terms of the highest activity of institutions and organizations to deal with the corona virus, the Vicor multi-criteria prioritization model has been used.Therefore, the normalized indices are weighted by Shannon entropy matrix method and the sample rural villages are ranked based on the Victor technique.
According to the question raised at the beginning of the study, the results obtained based on statistical tests indicate that, in all studied indicators, the level of significance (sig) is less than 0.05, which indicates a relatively favorable opinion of respondents about the activities of the working group. The results of the T-test also showed that among the performance indicators of organizations and institutions, the index of social distance in the first place, the index of health care in the second place and the index of infrastructure expansion Internet rankings are ranked third, finally, based on the ranking of villages, in terms of the effectiveness of institutions and organizations in combating the outbreak of coronavirus, studies indicate that the village of Bulqanabad ranks first in the service of institutions and organizations. have been allocated to themselves.