Comparative study of environmental and physical characteristics of organic cities with new cities: A case study of Shazand city and the new city of Mohajeran

Document Type : Research Paper


1 University of Guilan

2 Master student of Urbanism-urban planning, department of urban planning and design, University of Guilan, Rasht, Iran



The purpose of this study is to compare the success rate of organic and new cities in the physical and environmental fields and to determine the success rates of both cities in different dimensions and the prevalence of localization through the combination of organic and new cities.The research method is comparative in the framework of analytical methods.Questionnaires were completed by random sampling method.Cronbach's alpha coefficient was calculated to be 0.904.After examining the variance of the tolerable capacity of the city with Leven test, it was found that the organic and old city of Shazand is lower than the city of immigrants,which is a new and planned city and has a lower level of satisfaction.As a result, the success rate of the new city of immigrants in terms of access and services, dynamism and adaptation,and in the field of green space and tolerable capacity of the city has been more than the city of Shazand.In addition, research has shown that with increasing the length of stay of residents in the new city of immigrants,residents' satisfaction increases.


Unbalanced urban growth and development has caused spatial disruptions and environmental degradation,reduced security and anonymity in the city.Lack of attention to proper knowledge and use of organic and new methods has led to physical disintegration and environmental pollution.According to the study of different countries' experiences of building new cities,it is clear that the purpose of creating these cities in most countries was to decentralize large cities or to implement economic development policies along with political-administrative and industrial development goals.These goals have been applied in different countries in different ways to economic development policies and have been an appropriate response to organize the spatial use of the region.Therefore, combining indigenous knowledge and experiences with the new is one of the necessities that can achieve sustainable urban development while maintaining urban identity, safety, beauty.Lack of coordination of urban space design with natural and physical space conditions, inadequacies of urban infrastructure and infrastructure facilities and improper distribution of land uses and unprincipled constructions in areas and neighborhoods of Shazand city cause loss of national capital and aggravation of environmental problems.Urban and physical space has become space.In the meantime,the aim of the present study is to compare the success rate of organic and new cities in different fields such as physical and environmental and to determine the areas of success of both cities in environmental and physical dimensions and use these factors as a complement to native prevalence. Construction is through a combination of organic and new urban planning.


The present research has been compiled based on the purpose of the applied type and using the library and documentary method of the theoretical foundations of the research.The research method in this research is comparative and within the framework of analytical methods.A questionnaire was used to collect the required information.The questionnaires were reviewed by 5 experts and professors of urban planning after compiling several times and were completed randomly using the sampling method.Also in this questionnaire, the criteria of dynamism and adaptability,diversity, access and service, tolerable capacity of the city, pollution and green space in the form of a Likert scale of five options(very little to very much)have been questioned by people and citizens.Cronbach's alpha coefficient of the questionnaires was calculated to be 0.904.In order to determine the validity and validity of the questionnaire, the extracted mean variance (AVE) method was used.The convergent validity of the questionnaires was calculated to be 0.873.The statistical population of the study includes 117571 people in Shazand city and 20346 people in the new city of Mohajeran based on the 2016 census.The sample size was calculated using Cochran's formula 383 and 377, respectively.The analysis of these questionnaires was in SPSS software.

Results and discussion

The regression model used in this study is a simultaneous method in which the value of the correlation coefficient between the variables of physical condition of Shazand city was calculated.So that if the amount of dimensions increases, the amount of diversity will increase by 70%,dynamics and compatibility by 67%, and access and services by 48% will improve the physical condition of Shazand city.One of the necessary preconditions for regression is a significant study of the type of regression,which according to Table 9 variables of access and services at 20%,the lowest and highest diversity with 48%is able to predict the physical condition of Shazand.Significance level indicates the appropriateness of criteria for determining changes in physical variables. According to the obtained result, the test showed that the variable of access and service to citizens with a lower value of T than the other dimensions and with a standard beta coefficient has the least effect on the physical variable.Also,the variables of dynamics, compatibility and variety of uses with the highest standard beta coefficient and the value of t-statistic and significance level had the greatest impact on the physical dimension of Shazand city.RMSEA = 075/0) It was estimated that the result is the acceptability of the physical model of Shazand city.This value should be less than 0.08 to mention the desired and acceptable model. Also, its CFI (adaptive fit) was higher than 0.9 (CFI = 0.91,which is a desirable model in this regard.


Therefore, it can be said that historical and traditional contexts are part of the body of the city and also attention to their social, economic, physical and environmental life is a necessity of urban planning issues. In this regard, taking advantage of public participation and the potentials in these contexts can provide important opportunities for advancing planners, designers and city managers. In reviewing and analyzing the findings, it was found that Shazand city in the form of an organic city has been neglected by city officials. Because studies have shown that the city of Mohajeran has performed better than the city of Shazand in terms of physical and environmental issues. In this regard, Shazand city officials can study the physical and environmental characteristics of the new city of Mohajeran and use them as a complement to strengthen and improve the physical and environmental characteristics of the organic city.


Main Subjects

Articles in Press, Accepted Manuscript
Available Online from 01 December 2021
  • Receive Date: 21 January 2021
  • Revise Date: 24 November 2021
  • Accept Date: 01 December 2021
  • First Publish Date: 01 December 2021