Analysis of Factors Affecting the Occurrence and Continuity of Colbary Phenomenon in Border Rural Areas of Kurdistan Province

Document Type : Research Paper

Author

Faculty Member of Geography and Rural Planning, Payame Noor University, Tehran, Iran of geography,pnu university,iran.

Abstract

Introduction:

Colbary is a job that deals with smuggling goods. Indeed; Due to the lack of decent job opportunities in the border areas, which is above all, the result of underdevelopment and lack of efficient investment in these areas, a significant part of the labor-seeking workforce is attracted to the informal economy, especially Colbary. Meanwhile, Kurdistan Province, with its 227-kilometer border with Iraq, has become one of the main routes for legal and illegal border exchanges, through three official Markets in Bashmagh of Marivan, and the informal markets of Seif Saqz, Siranband of Baneh, and official Colbary thoroughfares Legal exchanges take place, In addition to legal exchanges, illegal exchanges are also carried out by colbars in the borders of the province. Meanwhile, the cities of Baneh, Marivan and Sarvabad have enjoyed special importance in the import of smuggled goods in recent years. Considering the effects and consequences of this phenomenon (Colbary) on the stability of the country's security, especially in economic, social and political dimensions, the approach and management of this phenomenon is complex and has many ambiguities and ifs and buts. The main research question is based on this point is that; What are the most important factors and grounds for the occurrence and continuation of the Colbary phenomenon among the rural areas of the border counties of Kurdistan province and the most effective ones?

Methodology

The present research is applied in terms of type and descriptive-analytical in terms of method. In order to collect data in the theoretical part, the documentary method has been used and in the field part, the survey method has been used based on observation, interview and questionnaire. Quantitative-qualitative research in the qualitative section to identify the most important causes and factors of occurrence and persistence of colbary in the region by conducting in-depth targeted interviews with statistical communities of research and in the quantitative section, using inferential statistics to confirm qualitative findings were generalized. According to the comprehensive view of the research, it was tried to examine and question all the groups involved in the continuation and organization of the Colbary phenomenon in the villages of the province. Based on this, three groups and statistical populations based on rural culverts, development officials of the province and border counties and local experts, including scientific experts in the field of development and people with ideas and solutions in the field of culverts were considered. These individuals were identified purposefully and based on the snowball sampling method. The interviews were analyzed in the qualitative part with the basic theory technique and in the quantitative part using factor analysis and path analysis. Formal, content, and structural validity were confirmed by distributing pre-tests and surveys of related scientific experts, especially in the field of rural development and familiar to the region, respectively, and then, factor analysis and reliability tests were confirmed by Cronbach's alpha coefficient of 0.79.



Results and discussion

Findings of factor analysis indicate that the first factor with a specific value of 15.28 and an explanation of 25.46% of variance, contains 25 indicators or barriers. Considering that among the aggregated indicators, 17 indicators related to the weakness of planning, policy-making and management and two major and high-factor indicators belong to the weakness of border management, therefore; This factor can be called the weakness of policy, development planning and security management of this border area. The second factor with an eigenvalue of 10.46 and an explanation of 17.43% of the variances, has 11 indicators or barriers. According to the accumulated indicators, this factor can be called weakness in protection laws and weakness in the physical infrastructure required for economic development in the border villages of the province. The third factor, with an eigenvalue of 7.52 and an explanation of 12.54% of the variances, includes 14 indicators or barriers. Due to the frequency of accumulated indicators, this factor can be called "social inadequacies and unsuitable business environment for rural economic development". And the fourth factor with an eigenvalue of 6.28 and an explanation of 10.47% of the variances, has 8 indicators or barriers. According to the accumulated indicators; This indicator can be called "lack of capital of local people for economic development and job creation in rural areas. Also, the findings of the route analysis indicate that the cause of weak policy, development planning and security management of this border area with indirect impact on the formation of other barriers and then, lack of local capital for economic development and job creation in rural areas are the most effective obstacles identified in order to eliminate the Colbary phenomenon in the region



Conclusion

The results showed that in total, 76 variables, in the form of seven categories of development planning, policy and management weakness; Inadequate business environment in the area; Border security management; Weak laws and protections; Weaknesses in the physical infrastructure required for economic development; lack of local capital; Socio-cultural weaknesses in the context of four main categories or obstacles, including institutional inadequacies, weakness of financial resources and weakness in human and social capital; that they affect the continuity of the Colbary phenomenon in the study area. The results of factor analysis test showed that all variables in the four main factors of policy weakness, development planning and security management of this border area; Weaknesses in protectionist laws and weaknesses in the physical infrastructure required for economic development at the village level; Social inadequacies and unsuitable business environment for rural economic development and lack of capital of local people for economic development and job creation are summarized as the main factors in the continuation of the Colbary phenomenon in the region. Also, the final result of the path analysis test showed that the weakening of policy, development planning and security management of this border area and then, lack of local capital for economic development and job creation in the studied rural areas are the most effective obstacles identified in order to eliminate the Colbary phenomenon in the region.

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Main Subjects



Articles in Press, Accepted Manuscript
Available Online from 07 May 2022
  • Receive Date: 16 October 2021
  • Revise Date: 25 December 2021
  • Accept Date: 07 May 2022
  • First Publish Date: 07 May 2022