Analysis of Iran's Geopolitical Role in International Corridors

Document Type : Research Paper


1 PhD student in political geography, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran

2 Assistant Professor of Political Geography, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran



The geography of transportation is to study the geographical areas on which transportation is done and includes water-based and land-based strips as the main routes. Although the history of the carriage dates back to "human antiquity", the most important documents in the field of transport go back to the Silk Road. This route, which dates back to the second century BC and was commercially viable for almost 1800 years until the sixteenth century, represents Marco Polo's long journey from Venice to China for decades on the trade route between Europe and Asia. In fact, the transportation and transit of goods and passengers was "land-based" in the past, but today independent political units to expand their economic power, in addition to the land-based view, put sea transportation on their agenda and international corridors by sea, land and combination of its results. So that today more than 80% of world trade is done through sea transport, and, this type of transport is the main axis of the global economy. Transportation corridors are physically defined as a combination of routes that connect economic activity centers in one or more neighboring countries. From the point of view of the Railway Cooperation Organization, an international corridor is the international transport network that uses railways, waterways and roads for the international transport and transit of goods. This type of transportation should be done with the least possible time and high economic efficiency. Today, international transport corridors connect countries on all four sides of the map, the most important of which are the North-South Corridor, the East-West Corridor or the New Silk Road (China's One Belt one Road Initiative) and the EU TRACECA Corridor. The main issue of the present study is the systematic study of Iran's role in international corridors from a geopolitical perspective, and since research in this area is poor, we decided to complete this study. Here we review the literature on the role of transit of Iran and related issues.

Research Methodology

The present study is of a fundamental and theoretical type that, by presenting the Hypothesis of "Iran, the heartland of the world's corridors", tries to analyze the geopolitical role of Iran in international corridors. The method of data collection in this research is documentary and library, and the method of data analysis is descriptive-analytical.


Iran, with its geopolitical foundations that are influenced by its geography, has always been considered by the countries of the world, especially the world powers, and in terms of geographical location, it has been located in the connection of different civilizations, nations and ethnic groups and geographical regions, and has facilitated the interaction between the civilizations of Sindh and Punjab, Mesopotamia and Transoxiana. This country has been considered as a crossroads of civilizations since ancient times and has had a very good position in terms of sea and land. Iran was also at the heart of the ancient land Silk Road, linking Oriental civilization to Western civilization and being a communication route for extensive interactions on the one hand, and great wars on the other.

Iran is located in a unique geographical position, acting as a bridge between Africa, Europe and Asia, connecting India and Russia in the north-south corridor; Connecting Asia and Europe in the East-West corridor; Connecting Central Asia, the Caucasus, Turkey and Western Europe in the TRACECA Corridor; Connecting Southeast Asia to northwestern Europe in the South Asian Corridor; The link between ECO members as well as Central Asian countries to the high seas and the Persian Gulf is considered in the Ashgabat agreement. In fact, Iran is in one of the best geographical locations in the world, playing a combination of geopolitical, geostrategic, geoeconomic and geotransit roles in Southwest Asia.

Iran's geographical position Due to its connection with the high seas and its position between the two powers, naval and land, in other words, Riemland's position in the geopolitical theories of global strategy has created a transit position for Iran, These features make communicating with Iran and crossing its space inevitable. Communicating with Iran and crossing its space has been done mainly with two main goals: first, socio-economic goal to provide goods, materials, thoughts and ideas, people and means of transportation through Iran. This is what is being interpreted as "Iran's communication role" and has been stable from the past to the present. Second, the military goal that has been achieved with the aim of occupying Iran and occupying the territories beyond Iran.

The Conclusion

Iran, with its geopolitical foundations that are influenced by its geography, has always been considered by the countries of the world, especially the world powers. Today, the geographical-transit situation of Iran has not only not declined, but with the construction of international corridors and the revival of the Silk Road, and its location in the heart of the world's most vital corridors, it has become a special geopolitical situation. In fact, Iran, as the heartland of the world's corridors, is the axis of connection between East and West through the OBOR initiative (New Silk Road) and north and south through the connection of South Asia to the north of the Eurasia (INSTC). It also provides transit links between Russia, Eastern Europe, Central Europe, Northern Europe, the Caspian-Central Asia and the Caucasus on the one hand and South Asia, Southeast Asia, the Far East, Oceania and the Persian Gulf on the other. In addition to being located in the geographical center of the ECO member countries, it is also the shortest and most economical route for the landlocked states to reach the ocean waters, which is reflected in the Ashgabat Agreement. This geo-transit position of Iran in the 21st century global geopolinomical system, which relies on geographical-political-economic resources centered on ports and corridors, can provide Iran with many playing cards in regional and global power games. This will be achieved if attention to Iran's special role in international corridors is paid to it as a geopolitical code is on the agenda of Iran's foreign policy.


Main Subjects

  • احمدی، سید عباس و حسن نورعلی. (1399). تحلیل ژئوپلیتیک جایگاه ایران در ابتکار یک کمربند یک جاده و فرصت‌های پیش روی آن. یازدهمین کنگره سالانه انجمن ژئوپلیتیک ایران، تحولات ژئواستراتژیک و ژئوپلیتیک جنوب غرب آسیا.
  • احمدی، سید عباس. (1387). بررسی نقش و موقعیت ایران در نظریه‌های ژئوپلیتیکی.مجلس و پژوهش، 14 (57)، 114-91.
  • ارغوانی پیرسلامی، فریبرز و سحر پیرانخو. (1396). جاده ابریشم نوین به‌مثابه راهبرد سیاست خارجی چین: فرصت‌ها و تهدیدها برای ایران. روابط خارجی، 9 (3)، 42-7.
  • ایراس. (1392). موسسه مطالعات ایران و اوراسیا، ایران و کریدور تراسیکا؛ ظرفیت‌ها و چالش‌ها، موسسه مطالعات ایران و اوراسیا).
  • بندر و دریا. (1390). نقش ترانزیت در توسعه شبکه اقتصاد جهانی، 27 (186)،11-1.
  • بویه، چمران و شریفی­کیا محمد. (1389). موقعیت ترانزیتی و ژئوپلیتیکی سیستان و بلوچستان و استراتژی‌های نوین اقتصادی کشورهای حوزه خلیج‌فارس، مجموعه مقالات چهارمین کنگره بین‌المللی جغرافیدانان جهان اسلام، ایران-زاهدان.
  • پرند، فرهاد. (1392). نقش ترانزیت خارجی در توسعه روابط بازرگانی ایران با کشورهای آسیای مرکزی، فرصت‌ها و چالش‌ها. فصلنامه بررسی‌های بازرگانی، 60، 91-77.
  • تیشه یار، ماندانا و تویسرکانی، مجتبی. (1396). مبنای ژئوپلیتیک راه ابریشم آمریکا و چین در آسیای مرکزی. فصلنامه آسیای مرکزی و قفقاز، 99 ،25-2.
  • حافظ نیا، محمدرضا. (1381). جغرافیای سیاسی ایران، تهران: سمت.
  • خلیلی، محسن؛ منشادی، مرتضی و آزموده فهیمه. (1390). بایستگی‌های ژئواکونومیک توسعه منطقه جنوب شرق ایران، روابط خارجی، 3، 124-81
  • خداقلی‌پور، علیرضا (1396)، ابتکار کمربند راه چین و تأثیر آن بر منافع ملی جمهوری اسلامی ایران. فصلنامه سیاست خارجی، 31 (1)، 49-17.
  • دهقان، محمود. (1395). تحلیل نقش بندر چابهار در کریدور ارتباطی شمال جنوب و توسعه محور شرق، نهمین کنگره انجمن ژیوپلیتیک‌ایران و اولین همایش انجمن جغرافیا و برنامه‌ریزی مناطق مرزی.
  • ذوالفقاری، مهدی. (1386). ژئوپلیتیک خلیج‌فارس، ایران و آمریکا (تهدیدها و فرصت‌های روبه روی جمهوری اسلامی). ره آورد سیاسی، 15، 125-97
  • رضاپور، دانیال و اسکندری، علی. (۱۳۹۷). فرصت‌ها و تهدیدهای طرح یک کمربند- یک جاده چین برای ایران،دومین کنفرانس بین‌المللی علوم سیاسی، روابط بین‌الملل و تحول، گرجستان، سازمان بین‌المللی مطالعات دانشگاهی.
  • رضاپور، دانیال و سمیر، رضا. (1398). ابتکار جاده ابریشم نوین چین، فرصت‌ها، چالش‌ها و تهدیدها برای ایران، پاکستان و قرقیزستان. دو فصلنامه مطالعات اقتصاد سیاسی بین‌الملل، 1 (1)، 186-157.
  • سیدامینی، سیده شکری و باورصاد، پرویز. (1394). بررسی موقعیت و وضعیت ایران در ترانزیت کالا،دومین کنفرانس بین‌المللی اقتصاد، مدیریت. حسابداری با رویکرد ارزش‌آفرینی، شیراز، موسسه آموزشی مدیران خبره نارون.
  • سازمند، بهاره و کاویانی فر، پیمان. (1394). ایران و برنامه تراسیکا و ابتکار راهرو گاز جنوبی اتحادیه اروپایی در دوران پسا تحریم. فصلنامه روابط خارجی، 7 (3)،29-5.
  • سازمان بندرها و دریانوردی ایران (1399)، کریدورهای بین‌المللی. قابل‌دسترسی در:

  • صادقی فر، محسن. (1388). در مسیر توسعه، مروری بر فرصت‌ها و تهدیدات ترانزیتی در بنادر ایران. مجله دریا و بندر، 26، 11-1.
  • صادقی، حسن. (1394). تاریخچه حمل‌ونقل و ترانزیت، سیر تکاملی آن و کنوانسیون‌های مرتبط،چهارمین کنفرانس ملی و دومین کنفرانس بین‌المللی حسابداری و مدیریت، تهران، شرکت خدمات برتر.
  • عزتی، عزت‌الله و شکری، شمس‌الدین. (1391). بررسی جایگاه چابهار در ترانزیت شمال-جنوب و نقش آن در توسعه شهرهای هم‌جوار. فصلنامه جغرافیایی سرزمین، 9 (36)، 14-1.
  • عرب امیری، شراره و رادفر، الهام. (1388).ارزیابی کریدورهای بین‌المللی آسیای میانه-اروپا و بررسی موانع گسترش ترانزیت ایران، یازدهمین همایش بین‌المللی حمل‌ونقل ریلی.
  • گل کرمی، عابد؛ کریمی‌پور، یدالله ؛ متقی، افشین و ربیعی، حسین. (1396). تبیین ژئوپلیتیک سیاست خارجی جمهوری اسلامی ایران با تأکید بر قابلیت‌های ژئواکونومیک. نشریه تحقیقات کاربردی علوم جغرافیایی، 18 (49)، 57-37.
  • مجتهدزاده، پیروز. (1379). ایده‌های ژئوپلیتیک و واقعیت‌های ایرانی، تهران: نشر نی.
  • مجتهدزاده، پیروز و رشیدی نژاد، احمد. (1390). رقابت روسیه با ایران در حوزه انرژی مناطق آسیای مرکزی- خزر و قفقاز. راهبرد یاس، 25، 276-266.
  • مجتهدزاده، پیروز. (1396). جغرافیای سیاسی و سیاست جغرافیایی، تهران: نشر سمت.
  • مجتهدزاده، پیروز. (1393). ژئوپلیتیک دسترسی، سخنرانی، همایش توسعه منطقه مکران از سوی نیروی دریایی جمهوری اسلامی ایران در جاسک به تاریخ 27 - 28 - 29 خرداد 1393.
  • مقاومتی نیوز. (1397). ظرفیت بازار ترانزیت ریلی‌ایران (۱) 8 میلیارد دلار درآمد بالقوه ایران از کریدور جنوبی آسیا، مقاومتی نیوز، پایگاه خبری تحلیلی اقتصاد مقاومتی، قابل‌دسترس در:
  • نورعلی، حسن و احمدی، سید عباس. (1399). بررسی نقش بندرها در نظریه‌های جغرافیای سیاسی / ژئوپلیتیک و ارائه نظریه قدرت بندری. فصلنامه پژوهش‌های جغرافیای سیاسی، 5 (4)، 114-91.
  • نوروزی، علیرضا و تقی زاده، معصومه. (1397). چالش‌ها و چشم‌انداز کریدورهای حمل‌ونقل بین‌المللی و عبوری از ایران (با تأکید بر کریدور شمال و جنوب). معاونت اقتصادی اداره کل اقتصاد و دارایی استان گیلان، وزارت امور اقتصادی و دارایی.
  • نصر، سید حسین. (1374). برخورد تمدن‌ها و پیامدهای آن برای ایران، تهران: دفتر مطالعات سیاسی و بین‌المللی وزارت امور خارجه.
  • ویژه‌نامه ترانزیت. (1389). معرفی کریدورهای ترانزیتی، کریدور تراسیکا.
  • وزارت راه و شهرسازی، پایگاه خبری. (1397). معرفی کریدورهای بین‌المللی عبوری از ایران، تراسیکا؛ کریدوری در دل راه تاریخی ابریشم. قابل‌دسترس در:
  • یزدانی، عنایت‌ا... و شاه‌محمدی، پریسا. (1393)، بررسی وجوه مثبت و لزوم پویایی ایران در ابتکار کمربند اقتصادی از منظر مکتب کپنهاگ. فصلنامه آسیای مرکزی و قفقاز، 88. 166-141.
  • Abeyagoonasekera, A. (2019). Geopolitical Scales of One Belt One Road. South Asia Journal.
  • Adib-Moghaddam, A. (2021). What is Iran?: Domestic Politics and International Relations in Five Musical Pieces. Cambridge University Press.
  • Ahmadi, S. A. & Noorali, H. (2020). Geopolitical analysis of Iran's position in the initiative of a one-way belt and the opportunities ahead; Eleventh Annual Congress of the Iranian Geopolitical Association, Geostrategic and Geopolitical Developments in Southwest Asia, 2020. [In Persian].
  • Ahmadi, S. A. (2008). A Study of the Role and Situation of Iran in Geopolitical Theories. Parliament and Research, 40 (57), 91-114. [In Persian].
  • Arab Amiri, Sh. & Radfar, E., (2009). Assessing the International Corridors of Central Asia and Europe and Examining the Obstacles to the Transit Expansion of Iran, 11th International Conference on Rail Transportation. [In Persian].
  • Arghavani Pirsalami, F., & Sahar, P. (2017). The New Silk Road as China's Foreign Policy Strategy: Opportunities and Threats for Iran. Foreign Relations, 90 (3), 42-7.
  • Arnold, J. (2006). Best Practices in Management of International Trade Corridors. TRANSPORT PAPERS, THE WORLD BANK GROUP.
  • Balsiger, J., 2018. Lectures: Cours political geography, Introduction and origins of the (sub)discipline of political geography:
  • Blanchard, J., & Flint, C. (2017). The Geopolitics of China’s Maritime Silk Road Initiative. Geopolitics, Volume 22- Issue 2.
  • Bocharnikov, V., & Egidarev, E. (2018). ONE BELT, ONE ROAD IS AS THE CHALLENGE OF RUSSIA WILDERNESS CONSERVATION. , Conference: International Geographical Conference "China-Mongolia-Russia" Economic Corridor: Geographical and Environmental Factors of Territorial Development Opportuninies.
  • (2019). Ashgabat Agreement. BRI update, latest development of the Belt and Road Initiative. Retrieved from
  • Buyeh, Ch. & Sharifi Kia, M., (2010). Transit and Geopolitical Situation of Sistan and Baluchestan and New Economic Strategies of the Persian Gulf Countries, Proceedings of the 4th International Congress of Geographers of the Islamic World, Iran, Zahedan [In Persian].
  • Chalikyan, N., & Tashjian, Y. (2021). Geopolitics of the North-South Transport Corridor. South Asian Voices.
  • Chaudhury, D., (2018). India admitted to Ashgabat Agreement as Delhi pushes Eurasian connectivity agenda. Economic Times, Last Updated: Feb 01, 2018, 10:00 PM IST. Retrieved from
  • Ciprian , B. (2009). GEOPOLITICS AND TRANSPORTATION. UNITED STATES AND PANAMA CANAL. University of Oradea, Faculty of Economics .
  • Cohen, S. (2003). Geopolitics of the World System. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.
  • Cohen, S. B. (2014). Geopolitics: The Geography of International Relations. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.
  • Contessi, N. (2020). In the Shadow of the Belt and Road, Eurasian Corridors on the North—South Axis, . Reconnectiong Asia.
  • Contessi, N. (2020). The Great Railway Game, Eurasian Corridors on the North—South Axis, . Reconnecting Asia.
  • Dehghan, M., (2016). Analysis of the role of Chabahar port in the north-south communication corridor and east axis development, the ninth congress of the Geopolitical Association of Iran and the first conference of the Geography and Border Planning Association. [In Persian].
  • Dorsey, J. (2020). Flying Under the Radar: Iranian Alternatives to Suez and Belt and Road. Project: Middle East.
  • INT., (2020). HLWG Meetings of ITI & KTAI road corridors. Economic Cooperation Organization, News and Media, Latest News, TC. Retrieved from
  • Ezzati, E., & Shokri, S. (2012). The study of Chabahar position in north-south transit and its role in the development of neighboring cities. Geographical Quarterly of the Land, 9 (36), 1-14.[In Persian].
  • Fairgrieve, J., (1915). Geography and World Power. London, University Tutorial Press.
  • Fathollah-Nejad, A. (2015). A Critical Geopolitics of Iran's International Relations in a Changing World Order. University of London, School of Oriental and African Studies, 2015 - 598.
  • Fathollah-Nejad, A. (2021). Iran in an Emerging New World Order: From Ahmadinejad to Rouhani. Palgrave Macmillan.
  • Fuller, G., (1991). The center of the universe: the geopolitics of Iran. Westview Press; 1st edition (September 30, 19-91.
  • Gol Karami, A., & Karimipour, Y., Mottaqi, A., & Rabiee, H. (2017). Explaining the Geopolitics of the Foreign Policy of the Islamic Republic of Iran with Emphasis on Geoeconomic Capabilities, Journal of Applied Research in Geographical Sciences, 18(49), 37-57. [In Persian].
  • Hafeznia, M. R. (2002). Political Geography of Iran. Tehran: Samt. [In Persian].
  • Haiquan , L., (2017). The Security Challenges of the “One Belt, One Road” Initiative and China’s Choices. Croatian International Relations Review 23(78), 129-147.
  • Hali, M. S. & Shukuii, T. & Lqbal. S., (2015). One Belt and One Road, impact on Chine-Pakistan Economic Coridor, Strategic Studies, , 34(35), 147-164.
  • Hashemi Rafsanjani, F. (2014). Iran’s Role in the New Silk Road Strategy in the 3rd Millennium. Retrieved from
  • Hemmings, J., (2020). Reconstructing Order, The Geopolitical Risks in China’s Digital Silk Road. Roundtable in Asia Policy 15(1), 1-12.
  • Hochberg, L. & Sloan, G. (2017). Mackinder's Geopolitical Perspective Revisited, Journal of Strategic Studies, 22, DOI: 10.1080/01402399908437752.
  • Hope, A., & Cox, J., (2015). Development Corridors, ECONOMIC AND PRIVATE SECTOR PROFESSIONAL EVIDENCE AND APPLIED KNOWLEDGE SERVICES TOPIC GUIDE. Coffey International DevelopmentDecember, EPS Peaks, p. 1, 2.
  • Hourcade, B., (2010). Géopolitiquedel’Iran. Paris: Armand Colin, ISBN978-22002-5722-4; 256pp.
  • Hughes, R. J. & Heley, J. H., (2015). Between Man and Nature: The Enduring Wisdom of Sir Halford J. Mackinder. Journal of Strategic Studies, 38(6), 898-935, DOI: 10.1080/01402390.2015.1021037.
  • Huntington, S., (1993). The Clash of Civilizations?. Foreign Affairs, 72, 22–49.
  • (2013). Institute of Iran-Eurasia Studies, Iran and the Trasica Corridor; Capacities and Challenges, Institute of Iranian and Eurasian Studies. [In Persian].
  • , (2014). Country Report Of The Islamic Republic of Iran, First Meeting of Regional Network of Legal And Technical Experts On Transport Facilitation Phuket,10-12 February 2014. Islamic Republic of Iran Ministry of Roads & Urban Developmen.
  • Jones, M., Jones, R., & Woods, M., (2004). An Introduction to Political Geography, Space, place and politics, Routledge.
  • R. D., (2018). The Return of Marco Polo's World: War, Strategy, and American Interests in the Twenty-first Century, Random House.
  • Kaussler, B., (2011). Reviewed Work: Géopolitique de l'Iran by Bernard Hourcade. Iranian Studies, Volume 44, 2011 - Issue 6: 924-927. doi:
  • Keser, H., (2015). Importance of Transport Corridors in Regional Development: The Case of TRACECA. Sosyoekonomi 24(24), 163-182.
  • Khalili, M., Manshadi, M., & Azmoudeh, F. (2011). Geoeconomic requirements of the development of the southeastern region of Iran. Foreign Relations, 3,81-124. [In Persian].
  • Khodaghlipour, A. (2017). China Belt Initiative and Its Impact on the National Interests of the Islamic Republic of Iran. Foreign Policy Quarterly, 1 (1), 17-49. [In Persian].
  • Knutsen, T. L. (2014). Halford J. Mackinder, Geopolitics, and the Heartland Thesis, The International History Review, 36:5, 835-857, DOI: 10.1080/07075332.2014.941904.
  • Kouhi Esfahani, M. (2019). Iran’s Foreign Policy in the South Caucasus: Relations with Azerbaijan and Armenia,. NewYork and London: Publisher: Routledge.
  • Lin, W., (2018). Transport geography and geopolitics: Visions, rules and militarism in China's Belt and Road Initiative and beyond. Journal of Transport Geography.81, 102436.
  • (2020). One Hundred Ports 2020. Lloyd's List. Retrieved from
  • Mackinder, H.J., (1904). ‘The Geographical Pivot of History’, Geographical Journal, xxiii, 4, 421–37.
  • Mackinder, H.J., (1919). Democratic Ideals and Reality A Study in the Politics of Reconstruction, London: Constable and Co., Ltd.
  • Mahan, A. (1898). The Influence Of Sea Power Upon History (1660-1783). Spectral Assoc,.
  • Marshall, T., (2015). Prisoners of Geography: Ten Maps That Tell You Everything You Need To Know About The World. Scribner.
  • Ministry of Roads and Urban Development, News Base (2018). Introduction of International Corridors Crossing Iran, Trasika; Corridor in the heart of the historic Silk Road. Available at: [In Persian].
  • Moghavemati News. (2018). Iran's Rail Transit Market Capacity (1) $ 0.8 Billion Iran Potential Revenue from the South Asian Corridor, esistance News, Resistance Economy Analytical News Base, Available at: [In Persian].
  • Mohan, G. (2018). Europe’s Response to the Belt and Road Initiative. German Marshal fund of the United State.
  • Mohapatra, N. (2020). View: Geopolitical significance of trilateral Chabahar connectivity and India- Central Asia relations. Economic Times, Last Updated: Dec 30, 2020, 06:05 PM IST.
  • Mojtahedzadeh, P. (2014) Geopolitics of Access, Lecture, Conference on the Development of the Makran Region by the Navy of the Islamic Republic of Iran in Jask, June 27-28, 2014. [In Persian].
  • Mojtahedzadeh, P. (2017). Political Geography and Geographical Politics, Samat Publishing. [In Persian].
  • Mojtahedzadeh, P.(2000). Geopolitical Ideas and Iranian Realities, Ney Publishing. [In Persian].
  • Monshipouri, M. & Heiran-Nia, J., (2021). Iran’s Security Interests and Policies in the South Caucasus, Iran and the Caucasus 25 (2021) Koninklijke Brill NV, Leiden.
  • Muir, R. (1975). Modern Political Geography. Macmillan.
  • Naji, S. (2001). IRAN, THE CENTER OF ‘STRATEGIC ENERGY ELLIPSE’: A GEOPOLITICAL REALITY. Published by: Addleton Academic Publishers, Geopolitics, History, and International Relations, 3, 284-300.
  • Nasr, S. H. (1995). The Clash of Civilizations and Its Consequences for Iran, Office of Political and International Studies, Ministry of Foreign Affairs.
  • Noorali, H., & Ahmadi, S. A. (2021). A Study of the Role of Ports in Theories of Political / Geopolitical Geography and Presenting the Theory of Port Power, Journal of Political Geography Research, Mashhad, 5(4), 91-114. [In Persian].
  • Nowruzi, A., & Taghizadeh, M., (2018). Challenges and Prospects of Corridors of International Transport and Transit through Iran (with emphasis on North and South Corridors), Economic Deputy of Gilan General Directorate of Economy and Finance, Ministry of Economic Affairs and Finance. [In Persian].
  • O’Tuathail, , G., Dalby, S., & Routledge, P. (1998). The Geopolitics Reader. Routledge.
  • Parand, F. (2013). The Role of Foreign Transit in the Development of Iran's Trade Relations with Central Asian Countries, Opportunities and Challenges. Journal of Business Studies, 60, 77-91. [In Persian].
  • (2011). Global Advisory and Training Services,. A STUDY OF INTERNATIONAL TRANSPORT CORRIDORS IN OIC MEMBER COUNTRIES, This publication was commissioned and funded by the Islamic Development Bank.
  • Port and Sea (2011). The role of transit in the development of the global economic network, the twenty-seventh year, 186, 1-11. [In Persian].
  • Ports and Maritime Organization of Iran. (2019), International Corridors. Available at: [In Persian].
  • Pototskaya, T., Katrovskiy, A., & V. I., C. (2016). Geopolitical Impact on Transformation of Territorial Organization of Russian Pipeline Transport in the Post-Soviet Time. International Journal of Energy Economics and Policy, 6(4), 782-788.
  • Reilly, D. (2000). Shatterbelts and conflict behaviour: The effect of globalisation on ‘high risk’ states. Geopolitics 5(3), 48-77.
  • Rezapour, D., & Eskandari, A. (2016). Opportunities and Threats of a Belt-China Road Project for Iran, 2nd International Conference on Political Science, International Relations and Transformation, Georgia, International Organization for Academic Studies. [In Persian].
  • Rezapour, D., & Samir, R. (2019). The New China Silk Road Initiative, Opportunities, Challenges and Threats to Iran, Pakistan and Kyrgyzstan. Bi-Quarterly Journal of International Political Economy Studies, 1 (1), 157-186. [In Persian].
  • Rifaat, H. (2016). China, Iran, and ‘One Belt, One Road, Will Iran become drawn into China’s ‘One Belt, One Road’ orbit in Pakistan? The Diplomat, October 25, 2016. Retrieved from
  • Sadeghi, H. (2015), History of Transportation and Transit, its Evolution and Related Conventions, Fourth National Conference and Second International Conference on Accounting and Management, Tehran, Bartar Services Company. [In Persian].
  • Sadeghifar, M., (2009). On the Road to Development, A Review of Transit Opportunities and Threats in Iranian Ports, Journal of the Sea and Port, 26, 1-11. [In Persian].
  • Sarker, M., Hossin, M., Yin, , X., & Sarkar, M. (2018). One Belt One Road Initiative of China: Implication for Future of Global Development. Modern Economy, 9, 623-638.
  • Sazmand, B., & Kavianifar, P. (2015). Iran and the Trasica program and the European Union Southern Gas Corridor Initiative in the post-sanctions period, Foreign Relations Quarterly, 7 (3),5-29. [In Persian].
  • Seyed Amini Shokri, S., & Bavarsad, P., (2015). A Study of the Situation and Situation of Iran in the Transit of Goods, The Second International Conference on Economics, Management, Accounting with Value Creation Approach, Shiraz, Narun Expert Managers Training Institute. [In Persian].
  • Shaw, J., & Sidaway, J. (2011). Making Links: On (Re)engaging with Transport and Transport Geography. Progress in Human Geography 35(4), 502-520.
  • Singh Roy, M. (2012). Iran: India's Gateway to Central Asia. Strategic Analysis, 36(6), 1-14.
  • Singh Roy, M., & Roy, J. (2017). PLACING INDIA IN THE EMERGING REGIONAL DYNAMICS OF CENTRAL ASIA. Revista UNISCI / UNISCI Journal, Nº 45 (Octubre/October 2017).
  • Solhdoost, M. (2021). Iran’s geo-strategic orientations toward China and India. Journal of the Indian Ocean Region, Volume 17, 2021 - Issue 1: Between the Elephant and the Dragon: Small States and India-China Rivalry in the Indian Ocean Region, 60-77.
  • Spykman, N. (1942). America’s Strategy in World Politics: The United States and the Balance of Power. (New York: Harcourt.
  • (2018). India Joins the Ashgabat Agreement,.
  • Tashjian, Y. (2021). Armenia and India’s Vision of “North-South Corridor”: A Strategy or a “Pipe Dream”? Armenian Weekly, March 24, 2021. Retrieved from
  • Tianyang, L. (2019). Belt & Road Initiative expands China-Iran cooperation. China Daily, 2019, 1-25.
  • Tisheh Yar, M., & Tuyserkani, M. (2017). The Road to the East and the West in the Middle East, Journal of Central Asia and the Caucasus, 99, 2-25. [In Persian].
  • Transit Special Letter. (2010). Introduction of Transit Corridors, Trasica Corridor. [In Persian].
  • Tweed, D. (2019). QuickTake, China’s New Silk Road, Bloomberg.
  • Vince, V. (2003). Maritime Transport and Port Operations. The Global Facilitation Partnership for Transportation and Trade, 11.
  • (2018). India joins Ashgabat agreement.
  • World Bank. (2018). South Asia's Transport Corridors can Engines of Growth.
  • Yazdani, A., & Shah Mohammadi, P. (2014). A Study of the Positive Aspects and the Necessity of Iran's Dynamics in the Economic Belt Initiative from the Perspective of the Copenhagen School, Central Asia and Caucasus Quarterly, 88,141-166. [In Persian].
  • Zolfaghari, M. (2007). Persian Gulf Geopolitics, Iran and the United States (Threats and Opportunities Facing the Islamic Republic), Political Outcome, 15, 95-115. [In Persian].