A comparative study of factors affecting the happinees and vitality of rural households Case: Villages of Torbat-e-Heydariyeh and Fooman county

Document Type : Extracted from the dissertation


1 Ph.D., Geography and Rural Planning

2 : Associate Prof. in Geography and Rural Planning, University of Guilan, Rasht, Iran

3 Associate Prof. in Geography and Rural Planning, University of Sistan and

4 Professor, Department of Geography and Rural Planning, Gilan University, Rasht, Iran


Extended abstract


Freshness and vitality are part of the realm of community development and the end result of development. All human beings have a desire for freshness, societies that choose sustainability and vitality as the ultimate goals of development, can improve the living standards of their current inhabitants without harming the next generation and attracting and preserving them. The development of communities with the aim of providing opportunities for vitality and vitality for residents can be the key to future social sustainability. People choose their attitudes, preferences, views and environment based on their perception of their environment; Accordingly, different mentalities, according to their perception, consider freshness as the result of different factors. Therefore, one of the important cases of rural development planning on the one hand is to study the effective factors and measure the vitality and vitality of rural residents and on the other hand, to express and analyze the spatial differences of vitality and factors affecting the vitality of rural residents in different areas. Therefore, considering that each place has unique characteristics that are important in the process of planning and development of rural areas, it seems necessary to recognize the differences in place that are of great theoretical and practical importance.


The present research is descriptive-analytical in terms of purpose, method and method. Theoretical studies using library method, field data were also collected through a Likert scale questionnaire and interviews with rural households. The statistical population is rural households of two cities of Torbat-e Heydarieh in Khorasan Razavi province and Fooman in Gilan province (N = 41780). Statistical methods (descriptive and inferential) were used to answer the questions and analyze the data. To do this, each of the freshness factors in different rural areas of the two cities were compared. This comparison and calculation of the difference between the groups was done by post hoc tests. Geographic information system (GIS) was also used for spatial analysis of rural areas.Results and discussion

The difference between rural areas of Torbat-e-Heydariyeh and Fooman was investigated using post hoc tests. The results showed; In terms of economic factor affecting freshness, there is a significant difference in rural areas of both cities. There is also a difference between the rural areas of both cities in terms of social factor, enjoyment and environment. In terms of institutional-managerial factor, there is less difference in the rural areas of Fooman city and the residents of rural areas of Fooman city are satisfied with the institutional-managerial indicators, especially the performance of the villagers and Islamic councils of their village; But in the rural areas of Torbat-e Heydariyeh, they were less satisfied with the performance of institutions and the management of their villages. In terms of personal-psychological factor, there was no significant difference in rural areas of both cities and the majority of residents were highly satisfied with this factor. In terms of physical factor, there is no difference in rural areas of Fooman city and all rural areas of this city were at a moderate level in terms of satisfaction with physical factor, but in Torbat-e Heydarieh, half of rural areas are moderate and half They had low satisfaction. Finally, the residents of rural areas of Torbat-e Heydariyeh are almost dissatisfied with the geographical factor affecting freshness, which is mostly due to the location of many villages in the plain region with semi-arid climate, which in recent years has also suffered from drought. And there has been a sharp decline in rainfall, and the irregularity of rainfall has caused great damage to agriculture and, as a result, their economic situation and income. In Fooman city, in terms of the geographical factor influencing the freshness, Rudpish village is on the first floor, Gasht and Lulman villages are on the second floor and Alian, Sardarjangal and Gorabops villages are on the third floor. The settlement of Fooman city, which has resulted in a beautiful and attractive natural environment, has brought satisfaction to the rural residents.


Rejuvenation in rural areas is a goal whose importance is widely recognized by scientists around the world. Freshness takes on a meaning in the moment and changes its meaning from time to time and from place to place. The results of the study of the differences in the effective factors in the region showed that: Factors affecting vitality based on individual perceptions of the environment varies from place to place. Villages including six villages of Raqicheh, Balavlayt, Kadkan, Pa'in Velayat, Pa'inrukh, Balarakh and Baig in Torbat-e Heydariyeh and three villages of Gorab Pas, Lulman and Rudpish in Fooman have not affected this factor in their freshness. They are not satisfied with their economy. In terms of social factors, only two villages in the upper provinces in Torbat-e Heydarieh and Sardar Jangal in Fooman have felt higher satisfaction with this factor. In terms of institutional-managerial factor, half of Torbat-e Heydariyeh rural districts have considered the effect of this factor on their vitality to be moderate, but in four rural districts of Fooman, this factor is considered to be quite effective on their vitality. In terms of enjoyment factor, it had a moderate effect in all studied villages. Two personal factors - psychological and physical - in all rural areas of Fooman city and six rural areas of Torbat-e Heydarieh had the highest effect on their vitality. The environmental factor had a low impact in Torbat-e Heydariyeh rural areas and its effectiveness was moderate in Fooman rural areas. Also, in terms of geographical factor, Torbat-e Heydariyeh rural districts were less satisfied, but in three of the six rural districts of Fooman city, it had a high effect. This study showed that among different factors affecting vitality, objective factors had the greatest difference in affecting vitality in different places and mental factors such as personal-psychological factor in different places in terms of affecting vitality were almost the same.

Keywords: freshness, comparative study, post hoc test, Torbat-e-Heydariyeh city model, Fooman city


Main Subjects

Articles in Press, Accepted Manuscript
Available Online from 25 June 2022
  • Receive Date: 15 July 2021
  • Revise Date: 22 June 2022
  • Accept Date: 25 June 2022
  • First Publish Date: 25 June 2022