A study of the components of participatory planning with the social resilience approach: a systematic review

Document Type : Research Paper


1 Department of Urban Planning, Mashhad Branch, Islamic Azad University, Mashhad, Iran

2 Department of Geography and Urban Planning, Yazd University, Yazd, Iran


Extended Abstract
Throughout history, cities have often been able to withstand and recover from environmental shocks and stresses; however, due to the growing trend of urbanization, increased migrations from urban to rural areas, and the problems of suburbanization, these issues have become more frequent. Realizing the goals of participatory planning can help improve the sense of belonging, social capital, and interactions among individuals and groups. In return, this can contribute to the formation and improvement of the components of social resilience via active and real participation. As such, the specification of the components of participatory planning through the social resilience approach is highly significant. In the contemporary literature on resilience, this concept is considered a key dimension of sustainable development and is defined as the ability and readiness of cities to respond to and recover from significant changes, risks, and disasters with minimal damage to public health, community and economy. Social resilience involves a paradigmatic change in the mentality of citizens about their problems, the community's perception of risks and therefore, the adoption of a new approach toward interventions required for solving those problems and mitigating risks. Civil participation and social support can significantly impact local communities' resilience by increasing individuals' understanding of themselves and engaging them in decision-making processes. In addition, the support of local and governmental authorities and proper access to available resources can increase social welfare and communal readiness against future risks. However, any attempt at providing the right conditions must be tailored to local needs, and stakeholders need to become aware of and understand the complexities of urban systems. Despite recent scholarly attempts to identify the components of participatory planning to achieve resilience, few, if any, comprehensive and integrated studies have been carried out so far. Therefore, this research aims to bridge this fundamental gap.
This research is quantitative in terms of the used data, systematic in terms of its analysis structure, and applied in terms of the intended purpose. The methodology involved PRISMA and a systematic literature review on participatory planning and social resilience. In this type of review, a systematic and transparent method is used to identify, select, and critically evaluate all relevant research and collect and analyze data from existing studies. PRISMA is equivalent to reporting preferred materials for systematic review and meta-analysis frameworks. These frameworks are a comprehensive map based on which systematic review is performed. Resources are subsequently searched when the frameworks required for data collection are defined. Next, the target criteria are identified in the selected articles using PRISMA and combined and displayed. Among the 248 initial articles selected for systematic review in this study, 31 explicitly covered the main components of participatory planning and social resilience. In the final stage, thematic analysis was exerted to determine the objectives via open coding and the latent codes of the articles. The finalized sources were coded using MAXQDA Pro 2020, focusing on the research question. During the thematic analysis, concise codes were extracted from the texts by scrutinizing the lines, main phrases, and words to form concepts. In cases where the concepts had a shared ground, they were merged to form categories.
Results and discussion
This study aimed to identify the components of participatory planning via the social resilience approach and develop a comprehensive concept by combining the two components. A total of 215 codes were identified in the selected articles, which were developed into 20 concepts and 6 categories. The main categories were skills and empowerment of residents, potentials of local communities, sustainable recovery, synergy of institutions, social capital, and integrated and transparent participation. The concepts of trust building, increasing awareness, empowerment of residents, and crisis response were the most frequent ones. This is indicative of the multifaceted structure of resilience.
The results of this research showed that there is a significant relationship between the components of participatory planning, social resilience, and the main categories. The components of participatory planning via the social resilience approach include skills and empowerment of residents, potentials of local communities, sustainable recovery, synergy of institutions, social capital, and integrated and transparent participation. Trust building and awareness, constituting 51.61% of the references, and empowerment of residents and crisis response, constituting 48.39% of the references, were the most frequent concepts. This shows that resilience has a multifaceted structure, and it can be achieved if all the dimensions are properly addressed. The realization of participatory planning for increasing social resilience requires building trust, one of the most important aspects of human relations and a basic requisite for participation and cooperation among society members. Crises result from interactions between humans and the environment. These interactions are inexhaustible, as are the crises resulting from these interactions. Although the severity of these crises can be reduced, certain issues persist, such as economic problems, population growth, lack of control land use, lack of insurance for urban sprawl, suburban development problems, inadequate social structures, and non-compliance with the technical requirements of construction. These issues can lead to major crises in societies when they are accompanied by natural disasters such as earthquakes and floods. Therefore, for communities to become resilient, their social problems must be properly addressed, and their physical and social structures need to be strengthened.
There is no funding support.
Authors’ Contribution
Authors contributed equally to the conceptualization and writing of the article. All of the authors approved thecontent of the manuscript and agreed on all aspects of the work declaration of competing interest none.
Conflict of Interest
Authors declared no conflict of interest.
This work is based upon research funded by Iran National Science Foundation. 99030161 (INSF) under project No


Main Subjects

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