Explaining the desirability components of urban space in realizing the right to the city (Case study: Urmia)

Document Type : Research Paper


1 Assistant Professor, Department of Geography and Urban Planning, Zanjan University, Zanjan, Iran

2 Assistant Professor, Department of Geography, Farhangian University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran

3 Department of Computer Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Zanjan University, Zanjan, Iran


Extended Abstract
The city is a complex set of physical and social spaces formed gradually over time as living beings. They always go through a life cycle in their evolution. However, it has accelerated in recent decades, and it has caused the uncontrolled expansion of cities, bottlenecks, problems, and complexities in cities. In this regard, one of the most important ways out of this situation is to identify local citizenship and, consequently, establish the city law to achieve prosperity, equality, social justice, etc. The burden of a right-based approach to the city to benefit all citizens’ equal opportunities in enjoying urban gifts. Based on this, in the present study, the desirability of urban space in realizing the right to a city in Urmia has been explained. In order to examine the significant status of the desirability of urban space in the realization of the right to the city, the priorities to pay attention to the factors of the realization of the right to the city at the level of Urmia are determined
The type of research is applied in terms of purpose and descriptive-analytical in terms of data collection. Data collection has been done in both library and field forms. In this study, 44 indicators of utility in 11 dimensions (safety, security, readability, accessibility, comfort, diversity, identity, meaning, interactions, vitality, participation) and 43 indicators of the right to the city in 10 dimensions (security, communication, recreation, physical, control, decision-making, space production, organization, social inclusion, justice-transparency) in Smart PLS environment have been analyzed to examine the level of significance. In the next step, the importance-performance of utility indicators in realizing the right to the city is analyzed using the IPA model to determine the level of difference in the importance-performance of the components. It is worth mentioning that based on this, a sample of 20 experts was selected using the snowball (targeted) method. Also, to ensure the validity of the metrics, a questionnaire was sent to five expert professors, and after receiving the corrective opinions of the experts, a questionnaire was developed. Cronbach's alpha coefficient was calculated to verify the reliability of the research data, which was reported to be over 80%.
Results and discussion
In the method of structural equations, the validity of structures and reliability and validity are checked before analyzing the effectiveness of indicators. In the present study, all factor loadings of the research are higher than 0.4 and the minimum acceptable. Also, the reliability of the composition was more than 0.7, and (AVE) as a convergent validity index was more than 0.5. Cronbach's alpha coefficient has also been reported as one of the methods for measuring the internal consistency of the questionnaire above 0.7. Thus, based on the calculated validity and reliability, it can be concluded that the research has the appropriate number of components. Fitting with the three methods of validity of the explained variance share (R2) more than 0.4, the predictive power of the model (Q2) more than 0.25, the strength of the structural model (GOF) more than 0.4 indicates the acceptability of the implemented model. At the same time, the current findings from the IPA model indicate a mismatch between the importance and performance of the indicators because the difference in importance and performance has varied from -3.1 meeting the needs to the value of +1 traffic improvement, distribution of transportation stations, and organizing defenseless and blind spaces.
The results obtained from SMART PLS fitting with three methods of validity sharing of variance (R2), predictive power (Q2), and structural model strength (GOF) have been reported at the ideal and desirable level and indicate the confirmation of the type of utility relationship in the right to the city. However, the results of the IPA model have shown that there has been a big difference between the level of importance of utility indicators and the amount of performance performed in the city, so low priority is given to high-importance indicators, and 48% of the abundance of indicators are located in this area, while the second area (continuation of the trend), which was a chart of the relevant officials' understanding of the issue of the right to the city, 36.36% is in second place in terms of abundance. Therefore, based on the results of research on indicators that meet the needs of citizens, the possibility of the presence of society in the city (especially disabled people), responsibility, belonging, adaptation, and legalization of citizens should be given priority. In this regard, it should be noted that when successful, urban policies and programs take steps to fulfill the needs and desires of the citizens and that their interests be prioritized. For this purpose, smart urban growth policies and smart cities can be put on the agenda to meet the needs of citizens with the least cost and short time. On the other hand, e-government and smart city policies provide 24-hour and online access to services without physical presence. Considering that the city should belong to all sections of society, and all groups, regardless of age, gender, and health status, can be present in society. A safe and favorable environment must be provided for these groups; therefore, it is necessary to create a safe, favorable environment and provide urban furniture for different classes that are usable for disabled people and pay attention to urban adaptation for all groups.
There is no funding support.
Authors’ Contribution
All of the authors approved thecontent of the manuscript and agreed on all aspects of the work.
Conflict of Interest
Authors declared no conflict of interest.
 We are grateful to all the scientific consultants of this paper.


Main Subjects

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