Explaining the desirability components of urban space in realizing the right to the city (Case study: Urmia)

Document Type : Research Paper


1 Assistant Professor, Department of Geography and Urban Planning, Zanjan University, Zanjan, Iran

2 Assistant Professor, Department of Geography, Farhangian University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran

3 Master of Computer Science, Zanjan University, Zanjan, Iran

4 PhD student of geography and urban planning, Zanjan University, Zanjan, Iran


Explaining the desirability components of urban space in realizing the right to the city (Case study: Urmia)


The city is a complex and complex set of physical and social spaces and spaces Which has formed gradually over time And as living beings, they always go through a life cycle in their evolution, But it has accelerated in recent decades And it has caused the uncontrolled expansion of cities, bottlenecks, problems and complexities in cities. In this regard, one of the most important ways out of this situation is to identify local citizenship and, consequently, to establish the city law with the aim of prosperity, equality, social justice, etc. The burden of a right-based approach to the city with the aim of benefiting all citizens Equal opportunities in enjoying urban gifts. Based on this, in the present study, the desirability of urban space in realizing the right to a city in the city of Urmia has been explained. In order to examine the significant status of the desirability of urban space in the realization of the right to the city, the first priorities to pay attention to the factors of the realization of the right to the city at the level of Urmia are determined.

Research Methods

The type of research is applied in terms of purpose and descriptive-analytical in terms of data collection. Data collection has been done in both library and field forms. In this study, 44 indicators of utility in 11 dimensions (safety, security, readability, accessibility, comfort, diversity, identity, meaning, interactions, vitality, participation) and 43 indicators of the right to the city in 10 dimensions (security, communication, recreation, physical, Control, decision-making, space production, organization, social inclusion, justice-transparency) in smart pls environment have been analyzed to examine the level of significance. In the next step, the importance-performance of utility indicators in realizing the right to the city is analyzed using the IPA model To determine the level of difference in the importance-performance of the components in the realization of the right to the city. It is worth mentioning Based on this, a sample of 20 experts was selected using the snowball (targeted) method Also, to ensure the validity of the metrics, a questionnaire was sent to 5 expert professors and after receiving the corrective opinions of the experts, a questionnaire was developed. And to ensure the reliability of the research data, Cronbach's alpha coefficient has been calculated, , Which is reported to be above 80%.

Discussion and research findings

In the method of structural equations, before analyzing the effectiveness of indicators, the validity of structures and reliability and validity are checked. In the present study, all factor loads of the research have a factor load higher than 0.4 and are higher than the minimum acceptable, Also, the reliability of the composition was more than 0.7 and (AVE) as a convergent validity index was more than 0.5 , Cronbach's alpha coefficient has also been reported as one of the methods for measuring the internal consistency of the questionnaire above 0.7. Therefore, the calculated validity and reliability all indicate that the appropriate amount of components is appropriate for the research. And fitting with the three methods of validity of the explained variance share (R2) more than 0.4, the predictive power of the model (Q2) more than 0.25, the strength of the structural model (GOF) more than 0.4 indicate the acceptability of the implemented model. While the current findings from the IPA model indicate a mismatch between the importance and performance of the indicators, Because the difference in importance and performance has varied from 3.1 - meeting the needs to the value of +1 traffic improvement, distribution of transportation stations and organizing defenseless and blind spaces.


Based on the results obtained from SMART PLS fitting with three methods of validity sharing of variance (R2), predictive power (Q2), structural model strength (GOF) have been reported at the ideal and desirable level. And indicates the confirmation of the type of utility relationship in the right to the city. But the results of the IPA model have shown There has been a big difference between the level of importance of utility indicators and the amount of performance performed in the city, So that low priority is given to high importance indicators and 48% of the abundance of indicators are located in this area, While the second area (continuation of the trend), which was a chart of the relevant officials' understanding of the issue of the right to the city, 36.36% is in second place in terms of abundance. Therefore, based on the results of research on indicators that meet the needs of citizens, the possibility of the presence of society in the city (especially the disabled), responsibility, belonging, adaptation, legalization of citizens should be given priority. In this regard, it should be noted that urban policies and programs when successful That they take steps in the direction of fulfilling the needs and desires of the citizens and that their interests be given priority, For this purpose, in order to meet the needs of citizens with the least cost and short time, smart urban growth policies and smart cities can be put on the agenda. On the other hand, e-government and smart city policies are categories Which provides 24-hour and online access to services without physical presence. On the other hand, considering that the city should belong to all sections of society And all groups, regardless of age, gender and health status, have the opportunity to be present in society, A safe and favorable environment must be provided for these groups, It is therefore necessary Created a safe, favorable environment And provided urban furniture for the use of different classes as usable for the disabled and paid attention to urban adaptation for all groups.

Keywords: right, desirability, right to the city, Urmia


Main Subjects

Articles in Press, Accepted Manuscript
Available Online from 19 July 2022
  • Receive Date: 16 March 2022
  • Revise Date: 05 July 2022
  • Accept Date: 19 July 2022
  • First Publish Date: 19 July 2022