Analysis Contextualism based on the categorization of residential complexes (Case study: Tabriz city)

Document Type : Research Paper


1 Architecture, University of Tabriz

2 University of Tabriz


Extended Abstract
In the past, architecture and urban planning always interacted with their surrounding environment, while today, on the one hand, due to the increase in population and excessive growth of cities, and on the other hand, due to the application of market taste and profit-seeking of individuals, the field of this interaction is separated. Cities with heterogeneous faces and disproportionate to the surrounding environment have been created. In such a situation, the complex economic and technical developments after the Industrial Revolution and the production of new architectural methods caused a rapid increase in population, a lack of housing, and an increasing need for the spatial development of cities. The necessity of vertical development and the construction of tall buildings became more important, and the policy of mass housing production in the form of residential complexes was proposed.
 Tabriz experiences a high population and urbanization rate due to the centrality of East Azarbaijan province and the accumulation of a wide range of facilities and services. In such a situation, land stock exchange and rent-seeking, failure of the planning system, economic duality, and growth poles have resulted in a lack of land and increased land prices. Continuing such issues and replacing multi-family houses, such as residential complexes, with different typologies instead of single-family houses has led to neglecting the background and underlying values in the construction process of different residential complexes. In this situation, the city grew gradually and haphazardly, resulting in a diverse and disconnected population without a clear identity.
According to the above, the possibility that different residential complexes have different effects on contextual dimensions has been proposed as a research hypothesis. Also, the present research seeks to answer the following main question:
- What is the impact of different types of residential complexes on each of the dimensions of contextualism?
The present study aims to analyze the effect of residential complexes classification on context orientation in Tabriz, and tries to identify residential complexes that have a more favorable situation in terms of context orientation and also identify the most critical dimensions and components affecting it and provide solutions to create a desirable living environment.
The current research is applied in terms of purpose and in terms of nature and method, it is analytical and field in a mixed way. The statistical population of the research is the residents of Fateh residential complexes (peripheral type; Region 2), Pardis (linear type; Region 1), Fajr (scattered type; Region 3), Chamran (peripheral type; Region 4), Golpark (linear type; Region 1)., Sattarkhan (dispersed species; Region 4), Zomorod (concentrated species; Region 3), Irdak (superblock species; Region 1), Tavus (superblock species; Region 4), and Sepidar (concentrated species; Region 3) of Tabriz with a number of 13,873 is a person, which due to the large size of the population, the sample size was estimated to be 374 people based on Cochran's formula and considering the confidence level of 95% and the acceptable error of 5%. Among these, due to the low participation rate of residents of residential complexes and the large number of questions in the questionnaire, the confidence level decreased to 93% and the error rate increased to 7%, thus 150 people (15 people out of every 10 residential complexes) using the sampling method Random-cluster were selected.
The face validity method was used to determine the validity of the questionnaire, and Cronbach's alpha method was used to measure the reliability of the questionnaire. And this amount is equal to 0.85, which indicates the good reliability of the variables. In order to check the existence of a significant relationship, mean and regression tests were used in SPSS software, and at the end, the path analysis model was drawn based on the regression coefficients.
Results and discussion
The results of the analysis of the averages show that the highest average amount is related to the physical dimension with 3.18%, the obtained result confirms the necessity of comprehensive attention to the physical aspects of the place and realistic analysis and recognition of the design base in terms of physicality. Also, the highest average amount of contextualism among different types of residential complex is related to superblock type. As expected, considering that Irdak and Tavus residential complexes (superblocks) are in a more favorable condition in terms of readability, materials, access, residents' participation, environment, etc.; the degree of adaptation of the complexes to the context has increased and the findings of the research confirm this. On the other hand, the findings of the research show that the lowest average amount of contextualism is related to the scattered type, it should be noted that the point distribution of Fajr and Sattarkhan residential complexes (scattered type) has led to the diminution of the role of the context in the design of the complexes. The findings from the analysis of the path model showed that the impact of environmental species on contextualism was more than other species, which is due to the high coefficients of natural and physical dimensions of contextualism in the mentioned species. Also, in order to adapt more to the background and context, the cultural and historical dimensions of contextualism of the environmental species should be strengthened. Also, the impact of the historical dimension on contextualism is more than other dimensions, in which the importance of the role of the identity component in the historical dimension is more important. The analysis of the results of the regression test indicates that the greatest influence on contextualism is related to the natural dimension with a coefficient of 0.487. In justification of this, it can be said that the natural dimension, by including issues such as adaptation to climatic conditions and respect for nature and the environment, in addition to playing a fundamental role in providing the comfort of the residents' lives, also seeks the sustainability of the built environment and the improvement of the level of harmony with the environment.
The most important results of this research are as follows; when designing residential complexes, in addition to the historical dimension (historical buildings, place identity and collective memories, continuity of urban space, principles of the past and native authenticity), especially the component of place identity, the readability component of the physical dimension, the coordination component of cultural dimension, and the component of respect for the environment of the natural dimension, should also be taken into consideration by architects and urban planners.
There is no funding support.
Authors Contribution
Authors contributed equally to the conceptualization and writing of the article. All of the authors approved thecontent of the manuscript and agreed on all aspects of the work declaration of competing interest none.
Conflict of Interest
Authors declared no conflict of interest.
We are grateful to all the scientific consultants of this paper.


Main Subjects

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