Effective criteria in improving the environmental quality of dysfunctional urban fabrics based on residents' preferences (Case study: Bisim neighborhood of Zanjan)

Document Type : Research Paper


1 Department of Architecture, Zanjan branch, Islamic Azad University, Zanjan, Iran

2 Department of Architecture, Tabriz. branch, Islamic Azad University, Tabriz., Iran

3 Lecturer, Department of Architecture and urban planning, Technical and Vocational University, Tehran, Iran.

4 Lecturer, Department of Architecture and urban planning, Technical and Vocational University, Tehran, Iran



In recent decades, the dysfunctional and inefficient fabrics has always been raised as a major issue for urban planners and managers. The emergence of dysfunctional fabrics and their problems is a phenomenon that all cities have encountered in the course of their growth and development, and each city and community according to its characteristics, has adopted different methods and approaches to intervene and revitalize these areas. Examining the intervention methods, effects and results of these interventions can create a better understanding of the nature of dysfunctional fabrics and lead to the adoption of appropriate strategies for the viability of these areas. Meanwhile, the residence of more than a quarter of the urban population in the area of dysfunctional urban fabrics indicates the importance of planning for these areas. Therefore, the authors of the present study are trying to identify the factors affecting the quality of the neighborhood from the perspective of residents and provide solutions to organize the current situation of the Bisim neighborhood of Zanjan city, according to the experiences and results of previous research.


The current research is applied and has been done using quantitative and qualitative models. The required data were collected in two ways: library and field, using a questionnaire. In this research, a survey method has been used to collect residents' points of view. The statistical population of this study is the Bisim neighborhoods of Zanjan city, which with 5921 number of households and 18406 population has been selected from the central neighborhoods of this city for the study. The statistical sample size, which has been determined using the Cochran's formula and simple random sampling method, from the statistical population of the research is 376 people. After identifying the environmental quality criteria in the neighborhoods from among the criteria proposed by urban design thinkers, in the survey section, a survey of residents was conducted according to the questionnaire. In the present research process, first five factors "physical", "social", "functional", " Economical" and "managerial" have been determined as the main factors of research for testing and then the status of each of these factors in the study neighborhood by a survey of Residents and performing a single-sample t-test were evaluated. In the next stage, in order to achieve the research objectives, the key factors influencing the quality improvement of the neighborhoods from the perspective of residents have been prioritized using the factor analysis test.

Results and discussion

Field findings in the Bisim range confirm the inefficiency of this fabrics. Accordingly, fineness, low property area and high population density are the characteristics of a Bisim neighborhood. Improper and unprincipled constructions, visual disturbances, narrow and busy passages and uneven sidewalks and the lack of green space and sports space per capita are other problems of this neighborhood. In addition, the unfair distribution of amenities and urban equipment has made this neighborhood socially, financially and culturally incomparable to its neighbors. Analytical findings show that "economic factor" with a factor load of 0.621 as the most important main factor is in the first place of residents' preferences. Factors "Functional" and "managerial" with a factor load of 0.592 are both in the second rank, factor "physical" with a factor load of 0.583 is in the fourth rank and factor "social" with a factor load of 0.507 is in the last rank. The ranking of sub-factors also shows that the variable "employment of residents and household income" from the subset of economic factors with a factor load of 0.913 is in the first rank of residents' preferences. The variable "Spatial access and communication" from the subset of functional factors with a factor load of 0.889 and the variable "Spatial organization and permeability" from the subset of physical factors with a factor load of 0.885 are ranked second and third, respectively. Among social factors, the variable "presence" is emphasized in relation to other variables. Because considering the desirable but hidden environmental-social capacities in this neighborhood, in a situation where the city administration wants to use the participation of the people in the form of social institutions, it will be able to reduce poverty and increase environmental quality in this neighborhood with the lowest cost and performance. In other words, the residents of this neighborhood believe that increasing social interactions, participation, solidarity and social ties depends on the presence and universality of spaces, which can be the basis for improving the quality of the neighborhood from a social perspective. In the field of management, the emphasis of the majority of residents was on the components of "maintenance" and "control and supervision", which have factor loads of 0.875 and 0.855. In this regard, the residents of the neighborhood believe that if the situation of vacant lands, semi-finished and abandoned buildings in order to create spaces for security, such as police stations, patrols become the head of management, and they will see a further improvement in environmental quality in this neighborhood.


In the current study, after raising the issue and the main concern of the research, first using the literature of the subject, the background of the research and their results as well as summarizing the results of the questionnaire distribution among the statistical sample by SPSS software, 5 factors as the main factors along with 22 sub-factors were identified that affected the environmental quality of dysfunctional fabrics. The study of effective factors in environmental quality criteria in dysfunctional urban fabrics, shows that improving the quality of the environment requires simultaneous attention to all factors involved in environmental quality. Considering the high factor load of "economic" criteria, it can be concluded that the variables of this factor have a high correlation with the environmental quality of the neighborhood; therefore, they need more attention.


Main Subjects

Articles in Press, Accepted Manuscript
Available Online from 30 July 2022
  • Receive Date: 10 January 2022
  • Revise Date: 28 July 2022
  • Accept Date: 30 July 2022
  • First Publish Date: 30 July 2022