The effect of validity and conflict of the image of the destination of historical cities on the happiness of tourists and the resonance of the brand of the tourist city (Case study of Yazd city)

Document Type : Research Paper


1 Department of Business Administration, Payam Noor University, Tehran, Iran.

2 Department of Urban Planning, Faculty of Art and Architecture, University of Gilan, Rasht, Iran.

3 Department of Tourism Management, Payam Noor University, Tehran, Iran.


Extended Abstrac
Historical tourism is one of the most important parts of tourism development, and many variables are effective in developing this type of tourism. The image of the destination is one of the determining factors in the tourist's joy of historical tourism. The image of the destination is considered a multidimensional and hybrid structure and follows the attitude pattern of three elements, including cognitive, emotional, and perceptual elements. Although some research considers the destination image as a two-dimensional structure (cognitive and emotional), some claim that tourism researchers have completely neglected the third dimension of the destination image, which has a useful meaning, over the past decades. The destination image was limited to studies of its perceptual or cognitive component. Now, travelers have concerns about their inexperience in destinations and want to find the most relevant information about their stay and destination before traveling. Providing reliable information for tourist destinations intended to facilitate the highest level of tourist experience and enjoyment leads to the tendency and encouragement of tourists to destination-oriented activities and experiences, including creating positive images of the destination, visiting the destination, shopping, and recommendations. Visiting the destination to others ultimately leads to joy and satisfaction that will lead to positive economic consequences for residents of historic cities. Visiting historic sites is one of the most popular activities among tourists. This justifies the favorable position of cultural heritage tourism among the fastest-growing tourism markets. However, less research has been done on the behavior of cultural heritage tourists. In 2014, approximately 40% of international tourists were identified as cultural heritage tourists based on their participation in cultural visits or activities. Culturally, they have been considered by marketing researchers.
Since the purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of validity and conflict of destination image of historical cities on the joy and resonance of tourists, in terms of purpose, it is applied, and in terms of research, the method is descriptive-survey and in data analysis using structural equation modeling has done. In order to test the hypotheses of the statistical community, tourists in Yazd from April 1 to late September 2019 have been selected. Morgan table was used to determine the number of research samples, and the statistical sample of this research was 384 people. In this study, the independent variables are perceived originality, conflict, and source credibility; the mediating variables are cognitive image, emotional image, and destination image; and the dependent variables are tourist joy and brand resonance recommendation, and 28 questions have been assigned to collect the necessary data. In inferential data analysis, Cronbach's alpha coefficient and KMO test were used to determine the internal stability of the instrument. All statistical calculations of this study were performed using SPSS23 statistical software and analyses related to structural equation modeling using AMOS23 software, and the significance level of the whole test is P <0.05.
Discussion and Results
The findings of this study showed that the creation of positive images of the destination is due to positive interaction with the local community. Zhang et al. (2014) also concluded that the perception of the destination image can be influenced by political, ideological, religious, ethnic, and cultural issues. The findings of this study showed that emotional image has more effects on behavioral goals than cognitive image. This means that emotions, contrary to the cognitive claim of the image, have a more significant impact on the emotional image; Gartner (1994) and Hudson, Ruth, Madden, and Hudson (2015) achieved similar results. The findings of this study indicated that the image of the destination has a positive and significant effect on the intention to travel to that destination. Moon, Aziz, and Boji (2018) reached similar conclusions. The results showed that destination managers and marketers can increase tourists' motivation to recommend a trip to that destination by creating a good image of the destination.
This study aimed to evaluate the presentation of a theoretical model on the relationships of variables of perceived originality, conflict, source validity, cognitive and emotional image, tourist joy, and brand resonance recommendation of a destination and the characteristics of these variables with a focus on the destination image. The results of this study showed that the source's perceived originality, involvement, and credibility have a positive and significant effect on cognitive and emotional images. Also, cognitive and emotional imagery affect the destination image. The findings showed that the destination image affects the intention of the visit and the intention of the recommendation. In fact, people who travel from a destination closer to their country of origin or region and feel close to the local people and their norms, or through the vast amount of information they obtain through the media and friends or relatives, travel to those destinations. In addition, creating positive images of the destination is due to positive interaction with the local community. Zhang et al. (2014) also concluded that the perception of the destination image can be influenced by political, ideological, religious, ethnic, and cultural issues. The findings of this study showed that emotional image has more effects on behavioral goals than cognitive image. This means that emotions affect the emotional image, contrary to the cognitive claim of the image. Gartner (1994) and Hudson, Ruth, Madden, and Hudson, 2015 achieved similar results. The findings of this study showed that the image of the destination has a positive and significant effect on the intention to travel to that destination. Moon, Aziz, and Boji (2018) reached similar conclusions, in line with the research findings showing that destination managers and marketers can increase tourists' intention to recommend by creating a good image of the destination. This study showed that focusing more on the emotional image dimension puts managers one step further in controlling behavioral goals because their feelings and emotions directly predict decisions about tourists.
There is no funding support.
Authors’ Contribution
Authors contributed equally to the conceptualization and writing of the article. All of the authors approved thecontent of the manuscript and agreed on all aspects of the work declaration of competing interest none.
Conflict of Interest
Authors declared no conflict of interest.
 We are grateful to all the scientific consultants of this paper.


Main Subjects

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