The role of entrepreneurial capital on the development of tourism and urban industry in Mazandaran province

Document Type : Research Paper


1 Assistant Professor of Business Management, Khorramshahr international Branch, Islamic Azad University, Khorramshahr, Iran.

2 PhD Student in Marketing, Department of Business Management, Roodehen Branch, Islamic Azad University, Roodehen, Iran


The tourism industry is an all-encompassing and vast global industry that can be called one of the largest industries in the world and all countries have appropriate tourism capacities in accordance with their environmental conditions, historical monuments, civilization and culture. . Iran, as one of the oldest countries, due to its geographical, religious, cultural and social conditions, has excellent tourism potential.

Due to the high potential of the tourism industry in creating wealth and job creation, today it has attracted entrepreneurs in this field. Tourism has always been closely related to entrepreneurship. Industrial tourism is the country that earns the most income and employment with the least capital, because everything, including ancient and natural monuments and places for this work, exist in most parts of the country. On the other hand, for every tourist entering the country, at least 5 jobs are created and the employment rate of the tourism sector is 11.2 times faster than other sectors. Another important issue in the field of tourism is sustainable urban development. There is ample evidence that the expansion of tourism activities significantly contributes to sustainable urban development (Toan et al., 2019). In fact, tourism has not been considered simply because of the number of people who travel, how it employs its employees, or the amount of money it earns. Tourism is also doubly important because of the way in which its sustainability is affected by the environment (Mosaei et al., 2012). On the other hand, at present, cities are among the most visited areas in the world, which receive millions of tourists every year. Urban tourism has become one of the most important economic activities today (Hajinejad et al., 2009).

In the studies that have been done on entrepreneurship in tourism, there is also this research gap that the impact of various entrepreneurial investments on the development of the tourism industry has not been seriously evaluated. Therefore, in order to explain in detail how the entrepreneurial capital affects the development of tourism, the impact of each of the proposed capitals in entrepreneurship should be examined. Finally, it is necessary to evaluate the potential effects of tourism expansion on urban development.


The present study is causal-correlational research method. The statistical population of this research is 532 managers of entrepreneurial companies in the field of tourism in Mazandaran province. In this study, Cochran's formula was used to calculate the sample size. Therefore, a sample of 224 people was selected by simple random sampling.

A library method was used to collect information in the theoretical dimension and a questionnaire was used to answer the questions and test the hypotheses and the questionnaire was distributed among 224 managers of entrepreneurial companies in the field of tourism in Mazandaran province. The standard questionnaire is related to the article of Kim et al. In 2020 and includes all the questions related to the research variables. Prior to the distribution of the questionnaire, professors and experts approved it and localization was performed.

Results and Discussion

Path coefficient values for financial capital and development of tourism industry equal (0.24), social capital and development of tourism industry equal (0.38) human capital and development of tourism industry equal (0.26), intellectual capital for development of tourism industry equal (41) /0). And the coefficient of development path of tourism industry on urban development is equal to (0.66) and these results indicate the positive impact of variables.

All research hypotheses that confirmed the impact of the variables of financial capital, social capital, human capital and intellectual capital on the tourism industry and urban development were confirmed. Entrepreneurial companies in the field of tourism can use the results of this research to develop the tourism and urban industry. The results of the hypotheses were analyzed based on significant statistics and if it is not in the range of +1.96 and -1.96, it will be accepted. Therefore, according to Table 6, all hypotheses were accepted


In general, the results obtained in this study showed that different dimensions of human capital, including human, intellectual, social and financial capital have a significant impact on tourism development. Therefore, tourism stakeholders and managers should pay more attention to these components in tourism development programs in order to develop an appropriate strategy. On the other hand, the results obtained in this study indicate the impact of tourism on urban development. This finding can also have managerial applications; This means that city managers can use the potential of tourism for the development of cities and in this regard, provide the necessary grounds for the expansion and development of tourism.

Based on the result obtained in the first hypothesis of the research, it is recommended that institutions such as municipalities or governorates provide financial facilities in the form of loans to companies active in the field of tourism in the province, to provide the necessary ground for growth and development of such companies.

Based on the result obtained in the second hypothesis, it is necessary for organizations such as the provincial radio and television and other media, by promoting the culture of hospitality and providing the necessary training to citizens, to provide the conditions in such a way that the presence of tourists in the province creates a good image. Be a memorable experience.

According to the third hypothesis, managers of tourism companies are recommended to use people with sufficient education and knowledge in relation to various aspects of tourism in hiring labor. Also, in choosing guides, it is necessary to pay attention to issues such as familiarity with natural attractions, ethics, mastery of foreign languages, etc. of managers of tourism companies.

In relation to the result obtained in the fourth hypothesis, it is suggested that improving the quality of tourism services in terms of accommodation, hospitality, etc. can also play an effective role in improving the brand image of tourism companies.

Based on the result obtained in the fifth hypothesis, it is recommended that provincial officials and institutions, including the governorate, city council, municipality, etc., put tourism development on the agenda as an approach to sustainable urban development.


Main Subjects

Articles in Press, Accepted Manuscript
Available Online from 05 September 2022
  • Receive Date: 05 May 2021
  • Revise Date: 17 August 2022
  • Accept Date: 05 September 2022
  • First Publish Date: 05 September 2022