Document Type : Extracted from the dissertation
Department of Geography - Faculty of Literature and Humanities - Ferdowsi University of Mashhad
گروه آموزشی جغرافیا، دانشکده ادبیات و علوم انسانی، دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد
Theoretical explanation of the effective components in geopolitical relations and presentation of the proposed Pattern
Geopolitical relations are one of the types of relations between countries and political actors, which are formed based on the combination of elements of politics, power, and geography. Each of these three elements has its own role and function in the formation of geopolitical relations. The element of geography provides a platform for establishing a relationship between two or more political actors; The element of politics shapes the will of two political actors from the nature of the relationship, and finally, the element of power shows the form, pattern, nature, and attitude of the actors towards each other. What is influential and defining in geopolitical relations is the nature, quality, and how to achieve maximum benefits, which is always the goal of all political actors and the relations between them. Geopolitical relations between political actors follow different communication patterns and are formed from different forms such as interaction, competition, confrontation, conflict, dominance, and influence. These patterns are a function of how the elements of geography and politics combine and interact in the context of the time. In other words, geopolitical relations between the central, semi-peripheral, and peripheral players based on geographical sources of power or the scale and type of game are made and manifested. Therefore, the investigation of the effective components in the geopolitical relations between the power players has an important place, and in this research, the most important components and factors affecting the geopolitical relations of the actors have been calculated by using the theories and perspectives related to the geopolitical relations. And finally, a proposed model for geopolitical relations between power actors is presented.
The present study seeks to explain theoretically the factors affecting geopolitical relations between power actors. which is classified as basic research based on its purpose. Because in basic research, the goal is to discover the truth and increase human knowledge. This research provides the basis for this increase in knowledge by knowing the factors affecting geopolitical relations between power players. Identifying the factors affecting the relations of power players based on the study of 37 theories and 15 views in the fields of geopolitics, political science, and international relations have been extracted and presented. The research method of this research is descriptive-analytical and the method of collecting information is done using library sources. The method of data analysis is also qualitative. In order to get the opinions of the experts, the dimensions and components were counted in the form of a fuzzy Delphi panel, and an electronic questionnaire was sent to the experts using the chain collection method (snowball). The process of sending the questionnaire until reaching the agreement and theoretical saturation Three stages continued. Because the design objects in this research are large and using variables with definite values is not effective in these cases; In the framework of the fuzzy Delphi method, the items reached experts' opinions through qualitative variables and then were used to convert verbal variables into triangular fuzzy numbers.
Extracting effective components of geopolitical relations from related theories and perspectives
The examination of the theories and viewpoints that are effective in geopolitical relations shows that there is no complete and comprehensive view in this field despite many efforts, and in order to achieve indicators and factors that are effective in geopolitical relations Different sources and works should be put together in the form of a puzzle where each of the theories and viewpoints presented (37 theories and 15 viewpoints and a total of 52 theories and viewpoints) act as pieces of a puzzle and with understanding The main map by combining the pieces together, you can get the puzzle and the final map, which in this section is the achievement of the factors and components affecting geopolitical relations. The study of theories and approaches shows that some theories have emphasized the natural dimension of power sources, such as territorial location, etc. have mentioned Some others have considered a combination of natural and human dimensions of power sources as effective components of geopolitical relations, such as maintaining the balance of the region, etc. Some other components that are highlighted in the mentioned theories and are considered as the basis of geopolitical relations include man-made things such as obtaining special technologies, directing large news media, etc. In a way, it is possible to artificially give power to those geographical sources.
conclusion and discussion
Based on this, in general, it can be said that the geopolitical components of actors are formed in the form of four dimensions with natural, human, combined, and artificial bases. Meanwhile, the relations of geopolitical actors, which are in the form of various forms such as competition, cooperation, convergence, influence, dominance, and tension, are formed and emerge based on these components. From the perspective of the viewer, this form of relationship between actors at different levels can have different effects based on the position and position of each actor. In other words, based on the geopolitical weight of the sources of power geography, the actors take different positions, which is based on the performance of the sources of power geography or its relations. In this regard, the position of actors can be leveled in the form of focal and central positions based on geographical sources of power or relationships, semi-peripheral and peripheral positions. The noteworthy point is the different and dynamic leveling of actors in such a way that an actor can be in a focal position based on geographical sources of power, but in terms of relationships in a semi-peripheral or peripheral position (such as Iraq, which is one of the five largest producing countries) is an oil producer, but has low bargaining power and relationships).