Studying and explaining Hegel's political thoughts and its effects on political geography

Document Type : Research Paper


Department of Political Geography, Faculty of Geography, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran.



Extended Abstract
The geographical attitude was established since human found the ability to know and understand his living environment. The method of knowing the environment and exploiting a set of special abilities and techniques was born, which was later called geography by the thinking human. The period of concern of thinkers such as Plato, Aristotle, Montesquieu, Jean Boden, and Hegel can be referred regarding the political thoughts of political philosophers about geography. Meanwhile, Hegel is one of the philosophers and thinkers who greatly influenced the political society. This paper examined Hegel's ideas about economy and civil society against geography and its relationship with politics, because many important geopolitical theories are directly and indirectly indebted to this political philosopher.
This research is a theoretical and fundamental type of research, and library and documentary methods were used to collect information, and descriptive-analytical methods were used to analyze the findings.
Results and discussion
The following can be discussed regarding the effects of Hegelian ideas in political geography: 1. Real-politics or the power-oriented approach in classical geopolitics, whose main elements are state-centeredness, the principle of survival, and self-help, which are best addressed in the comprehensive Hegelian system. 2. Organic state: Hegel develops the concept of organic state within the framework of his dialectical theory and influences Ritter and Ratzel. 3. New world order: Fukuyama identifies his thesis based on the universal desire for recognition of Hegel's third negation (negation of life through the awareness of death and risking life on the way to self-awareness, i.e., the awareness of death). According to Hegel, the last stage in human history will be a homogeneous and universal situation that fulfills all human needs. 4. Heartland Theory: According to Hegel, the world is divided into two parts of new (America and Australia) and old world (Asia, Africa and Europe), in which the old world, especially the countries of the Mediterranean basin, is the historical heart. This view has close similarities with Heartland Mackinder's view. According to Hegel, it is not possible to understand the ancient world without the Mediterranean. The Mediterranean Sea is the axis of world history and all the great countries of ancient history around this navel of the earth.
The influential geopolitical factors (fixed and variable) in Hegel's thought can be listed as follows: 1. Negative view about geography: Hegel denied the influence of politics and society on geographical features because nature has no independent positive concept and has never been absolutely determining while influencing (especially in the more evolved stages of the soul). 2. Climate: Hegel believes that effects and results should not be attributed too much to climate in the link between psychological and natural principles, especially climate. He is against Aristotle's statement that tropical or cold regions are not the stage of world history, and harsh climate is incompatible with a free spirit, and the temperate region is the scene of world history. 3. Expanse and population: Hegel did not confuse power with pure material force. From Hegel's point of view, the strength of a country is not in the large number of its population and warriors, nor in the size of the land, but the guarantee of the survival and implementation of the constitution of a government "is in the soul and history of that nation." These two have made and will make the basic laws or form of governments. 4. Border: According to Hegel's opinion, mountains are more suitable than sea and river water for demarcation between countries because of its advantages, which is the factor of unity of people.
This study investigated Hegel's views is his explicit and implied references to political geography such as the state, territory, population, climate, border, political organization of space and the way the government is structured, and even his negative view of geography and its effects on society. Especially his views about the government, national sovereignty and even war, which are the basis of real-politic thoughts, among the thinkers after him, were reviewed. Hegel considered the division of the world into two parts, new (America and Australia) and old (Asia, Africa and Europe), and the countries of the Mediterranean Basin as the heart of world history, which is reminiscent of Mackinder's thoughts. In addition, within the framework of his dialectical theory, he developed the organic concept of the state, which was later used by Ratzel and became the basis for many developments in world history. Therefore, a large part of the political geography literature in the 19th and 20th centuries is rooted in the philosophy of the Hegelian organismic state. In this philosophy, vital space and self-sufficiency became the motto of doctrines that resulted in full-scale war. Identifying the West with Europe and America as the future and free land of the world and finally, peace due to the special nature of democratic legitimacy and its ability to fulfill human aspirations were other results, which are the origin of Fukuyama's idea of ​​the new world order and the end of history. In general, Hegel's influence cannot be limited to one of the philosophical trends or scientific fields. Few philosophers in the western world have influenced the society after him as much as Hegel. His realpolitik theory roams in geopolitics like Hegel's spirit in today's politics. The importance of the government, national interests, the concept of war, and giving importance to the constant and variable elements of geopolitics in the calculation of power in his theory in the eyes of the realism and neorealism schools of theorizing still remain valid. Even his negative view about geography should not be considered as a view of destroying nature and geography. This point of view should be considered as the point of view of a person who lived in an era where concern for progress and hope for the practical and Sisyphean side of humanity was the main discourse. Despite human work negating nature from the perspective of the subject's self-awareness, in a concrete way, the subject and the world of nature are reconciled in a concrete way.


Main Subjects

  1. احمدی، بابک. (1390). گفتگو با بابک احمدی. مجله شهروند، 10.
  2. استیس، والترترنس. (1387). فلسفه هگل. ترجمه حمید عنایت، جلد اول، چاپ نهم، تهران: انتشارات امیرکبیر.
  3. اسمیت، آنتونی دی. (1391). ناسیونالیسم و مدرنیسم. ترجمه کاظم فیروزمند، چاپ اول، تهران: نشر ثالث.
  4. اشتراوس، لوئی. (1387). فلسفه سیاسی چیست؟. ترجمه فرهنگ رجایی، چاپ سوم، تهران: انتشارات علمی و فرهنگی.
  5. اشمیت، کارل. (1389). قانون و خشونت، مقاله مفهوم امر سیاسی. ترجمه صالح نجفی، چاپ دوم، تهران: رخ‌داد نو.
  6. اشمید، کریستین. (1393). نظریه تولید فضای هانری لوفور: به‌سوی دیالکتیک سه وجهی. ترجمه آیدین ترکمه، تهران: انتشارات تیسا.
  7. افلاطون. (1354). قوانین. ترجمه محمدحسن لطفی، تهران: انتشارات کاویان.
  8. اولمن، گری. (1389). به‌سوی یک نظم نوین جهانی درآمدی بر ناموس زمین به قلم کارل اشمیت. ترجمه علی عباس بیگی و مجتبی گل‌محمدی، چاپ دوم، تهران: رخ‌داد نو
  9. ایگلتون، تری. (1398). ایدئولوژی زیباشناختی. ترجمه مجید اخگر، چاپ سوم، تهران: نشر بیدگل.
  10. بشیریه، حسین. (1387). تاریخ اندیشه‌های سیاسی در قرن بیستم. جلد اول، چاپ هشتم، تهران: نشر نی.
  11. بلوم، ویلیام‌تئودور. (1373). نظریه‌های نظام سیاسی. ترجمه احمد تدین، جلد دوم، تهران: انتشارات آران.
  12. پلامناتز، جان. (1371). شرح و نقدی بر فلسفه اجتماعی و سیاسی هگل. ترجمه حسین بشیریه، چاپ دوم، تهران: نشر نی.
  13. پلامناتز، جان. (1378). نظریه دولت در فلسفه سیاسی هگل. ترجمه توحید عبدی، فصلنامه نامه فرهنگ.
  14. پولادی، کمال. (1380). از دولت اقتدار تا دولت عقل. تهران: نشر مرکز.
  15. پولادی، کمال. (1383). تاریخ اندیشه سیاسی در غرب. جلد اول، چاپ ششم، تهران: نشر مرکز
  16. جونز، ویلیام تامس. (1383). خداوندان اندیشه سیاسی. ترجمه علی رامین، جلد دوم، چاپ ششم، تهران: انتشارات علمی و فرهنگی
  17. جهانبگلو، رامین. (1368). انقلاب فرانسه و جنگ از دیدگاه هگل. تهران: سازمان انتشارات و آموزش انقلاب اسلامی.
  18. حاتمی‌نژاد، حسین و شورچه، محمود. (1393). شهر و نظریه انتقادی. تهران: نشر پرهام نقش.
  19. دورانت، ویل. (1383). لذات فلسفه. ترجمه عباس زریاب خوئی، چاپ پانزدهم، تهران: انتشارات علمی و فرهنگی.
  20. ذاکرزاده، ابوالقاسم. (1387). ایدئالیسم آلمانی (از ولف تا پیروان جدید کانت). آبادان: نشر پرسش.
  21. راسل، برتراند. (1365). تاریخ فلسفه غرب. ترجمه نجف دریابندری، جلد دوم، چاپ پنجم، تهران: انتشارات پرواز.
  22. سجویک، پیتر. (1390). دکارت تا دریدا: مروری بر فلسفه اروپایی. ترجمه محمدرضا آخوندزاده، تهران: نشر نی.
  23. شرمن، دیوید. (1390). خودآگاهی هگلی و پساساختارگرایان فرانسوی، ترجمه محمدمهدی اردبیلی و پیام ذوقی، تهران: رخ‌داد نو.
  24. صادقی، علی. (1388). آزادی و تاریخ (تأملاتی در دیالکتیک هگل). چاپ سوم، تهران: نشر پرسش.
  25. طباطبائی، سید جواد. (1366). سه روایت فلسفه سیاسی هگل. فرهنگ، 1، 12-1.
  26. عالم، عبدالرحمن. (1384). تاریخ فلسفه سیاسی غرب. جلد دوم، چاپ نهم، تهران: وزارت امور خارجه.
  27. قاسمی، فرهاد. (1394). نظریه‌های روابط بین‌الملل. چاپ دوم، تهران: نشر میزان.
  28. کاسیرر، ارنست. (1382). اسطوره دولت. ترجمه یدالله موقن، چاپ دوم، تهران: انتشارات هرمس.
  29. کوهن، سائولبرنارد. (1389). ژئوپلیتیک نظام جهانی. ترجمه عباس کاردان، چاپ دوم، تهران: انتشارات ابرار معاصر.
  30. کولاکوفسکی، لشک. (1387). جریان‌های اصلی در مارکسیسم. ترجمه عباس میلانی، جلد اول، چاپ سوم، تهران: نشر آگاه.
  31. لنکستر، لین. (1383). خداوندان اندیشه سیاسی. ترجمه علی رامین، جلد سوم، چاپ ششم، تهران: انتشارات علمی و فرهنگی.
  32. لوفور، هانری. (1393). فضا و شیوه تولید. ترجمه آیدین ترکمه، تهران: انتشارات تیسا.
  33. لوویت، کارل. (1389). از هگل تا نیچه (انقلاب در اندیشه سده نوزدهم). ترجمه حسن مرتضوی، چاپ دوم، مشهد: نیکا.
  34. مجتهدی، کریم. (1385). فلسفه و تجدد. تهران: امیرکبیر.
  35. مریفیلد، اندرو. (1393). مکان و فضا: سازش لوفوری. ترجمه آیدین ترکمه، تهران: انتشارات تیسا.
  36. مساروش، ایشتوان. (1380). نظریه بیگانگی مارکس. ترجمه حسن شمس آوری و کاظم فیروزمند، تهران: نشر مرکز.
  37. منصورنژاد، محمد. (1383). دیالکتیک و هگل. فصلنامه نامه فرهنگ، 54، 139-155
  38. مولر، جری. (1396). ذهن و بازار. ترجمه مهدی نصراله‌زاده، چاپ دوم، تهران: نشر بیدگل.
  39. میرحیدر، دره. (1384). مبانی جغرافیای سیاسی. چاپ دوازدهم، تهران: انتشارات سمت.
  40. میرسپاسی، علی. (1387). روشنفکران ایران (روایت‌های یأس و امید). ترجمه عباس مخبر، چاپ چهارم، تهران: نشر توسعه.
  41. وحدت، فرزین. (1382). رویارویی فکری ایران با مدرنیت. ترجمه مهدی حقیقت‌خواه، چاپ چهارم، تهران: نشر ققنوس.
  42. وینسنت، اندرو. (1371). نظریه‌های دولت. ترجمه حسین بشیریه، تهران: نشر نی.
  43. هاشمی، ف.م. (1379). تئوری سیاسی هگل. فصلنامه چیستا، 171، 53-58
  44. هگل، ف. (1387، الف). خدایگان و بنده. ترجمه حمید عنایت، چاپ پنجم، تهران: انتشارات خوارزمی.
  45. هگل، ف. (1390). پدیدارشناسی جان. ترجمه باقر پرهام، چاپ دوّم، تهران: انتشارات کندوکاو.
  46. هگل، ف. (1387، ب). عقل در تاریخ. ترجمه حمید عنایت، چاپ چهارم، تهران: انتشارات شفیعی.


  1. Ahmadi, B. (2011). Conversation with Babak Ahmadi. Citizen Magazine, 10. [In Persian].
  2. Alam, A. R. (2005). History of Western political philosophy. Second volume, ninth edition, Tehran: Ministry of Foreign Affairs. [In Persian].
  3. Bashiriyah, H. (2007). The history of political ideas in the 20th century. Volume 1, 8th edition, Tehran: Nei Publishing. [In Persian].
  4. Bloom, W. Th. (1994). Political system theories. Translated by Ahmad Tedin, Volume II, Tehran: Aran Publications. [In Persian].
  5. Cassirer, E. (2003). The myth of the state. Translated by Yadullah Moqan, second edition, Tehran: Hermes Publications. [In Persian].
  6. Cohen, S. B. (2010). Geopolitics of the world system. Translated by Abbas Kardan, second edition, Tehran: Abrar Contemporary Publications. [In Persian].
  7. Durant, W. (2004). The pleasures of philosophy. Translated by Abbas Zaryab Khoi, 15th edition, Tehran: Scientific and Cultural Publications. [In Persian].
  8. Eagleton, T. (2018). Aesthetic ideology. Translated by Majid Akhgar, third edition, Tehran: Bidgol Publishing. [In Persian].
  9. Fukuyama, F (1993), The End of History and the Last Man. New York, Avon Book.
  10. Ghasemi, F. (2014). Theories of international relations. Second edition, Tehran: Mizan publication. [In Persian].
  11. Gilpin, R. (1996). no one Loves a Political Realist. Security Studies, 5, 1-12.
  12. Graham, E., Joe, D., & Mo, M. (1992). The context and and language of postmodernism, Macmillan.
  13. Hashemi, F.M. (2000). Hegel's political theory. Chista Quarterly, 171, 53-58. [In Persian].
  14. Hataminejad, H., & Shorcheh, M. (2013). City and critical theory. Tehran: Parham Naqsh Publishing House. [In Persian].
  15. Hegel, F. (2001). John's phenomenology. Translated by Baqer Parham, second edition, Tehran: Kendokav Publications. [In Persian].
  16. Hegel, F. (2008, A). Gods and servants. Translated by Hamid Enayat, 5th edition, Tehran: Khwarazmi Publications. [In Persian].
  17. Hegel, F. (2008, b). Wisdom in history. Translated by Hamid Enayat, 4th edition, Tehran: Shafi'i Publications. [In Persian].
  18. Hegel, G., & Wilhelm, F. (1975). Lectures on the Phiolsophy of World History, Introduction: Reasonin History. Edited by Johannes Hoffmeister, Cambridge Univ. Press.
  19. Hegel, G., & Wilhelm, F. (1991). Elements of the Philosophy of Right. Edited by Allen W. Wood. Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press.
  20. Hegel, G., & Wilhelm, F. (1999). Political Writings (Cambridge Texts in the History of Political Thought). edited by H.B. Nisbet, London & New York, Cambridge university press, 20-35.
  21. Jahanbeglu, R. (1989). French revolution and war from Hegel's point of view. Tehran: Islamic Revolution Publishing and Education Organization. [In Persian].
  22. Jones, W. T. (2004). Gods of political thought. Translated by Ali Ramin, second volume, sixth edition, Tehran: Scientific and Cultural Publications. [In Persian].
  23. Koenen, E.J. (2001). Burgerlich Gesellschaft in: KlassischeGesellschaftsbegeriffe der Soziologie. Kneer/Nassehi/Schroer (Hg.), munchen: Wilhelm Fink Verlag.
  24. Kulakovsky, L. (2008). The main currents in Marxism. Translated by Abbas Milani, first volume, third edition, Tehran: Aghaz publication. [In Persian].
  25. Lancaster, Lynn. (2004). Gods of political thought. Translated by Ali Ramin, third volume, sixth edition, Tehran: Scientific and Cultural Publications. [In Persian].
  26. Lawrence, G. (1993). Cultural Studies and / in the New Worlds. Critical Studies in Mass Communication, 10(1), 1-22.
  27. Lefebvre, H. (2013). Space and production method. Translated by Aydin Turkmeh, Tehran: Tisa Publications. [In Persian].
  28. Levitt, C. (2010). From Hegel to Nietzsche (revolution in nineteenth century thought). Translated by Hassan Mortazavi, second edition, Mashhad: Nika. [In Persian].
  29. Mansoornejad, M. (2004). Dialectic and Hegel. Quarterly Journal of Culture, 54, 139-155. [In Persian].
  30. Markus, G (1997). political philosophy as phenomenology: on the method of hegels philosophy of right, sage, 1, 1-12.
  31. Masaroosh, I. (2001). Marx's theory of alienation. Translated by Hasan Shamsavori and Kazem Firouzmand, Tehran: Center Publishing. [In Persian].
  32. Merrifield, A. (2013). Place and space: Lefuri's compromise. Translated by Aydin Turkmeh, Tehran: Tisa Publications. [In Persian].
  33. Mirhaidar, v. (2004). Basics of political geography. Twelfth edition, Tehran: Somit Publications. [In Persian].
  34. Mueller, J. (2016). mind and market. Translated by Mehdi Nasralehzadeh, second edition, Tehran: Bidgol Publishing. [In Persian].
  35. Mujtahidi, K. (2005). Philosophy and modernity. Tehran: Amir Kabir. [In Persian].
  36. Ollman, B. (1990). putting dialectics to work: the process of abstraction in marx. rethinking Marxism.
  37. Pile, S. (2003). The Troubled Space of Frantz Fanon, Thinking Space. Eidted by: Mike Grang and Nigel Thrift, London, published by Taylor & Francis.
  38. Plamenatz, J. (1992). Commentary on Hegel's social and political philosophy. Translated by Hossein Bashiriyeh, second edition, Tehran: Ney Publishing. [In Persian].
  39. Plamenatz, J. (1999). State theory in Hegel's political philosophy. Translated by Tawhid Abdi, Quarterly Name of Farhang. [In Persian].
  40. (1975). Rules. Translated by Mohammad Hasan Lotfi, Tehran: Kavian Publications.
  41. Poladi, K. (2001). From the government of authority to the government of reason. Tehran: Nahr-e-Karzan. [In Persian].
  42. Poladi, K. (2004). History of political thought in the West. Volume 1, 6th edition, Tehran: Nahr-e-Karzan. [In Persian].
  43. Russell, B. (1986). History of western philosophy. Translated by Najaf Daryabandari, Volume 2, 5th edition, Tehran: Zafaraz Publications. [In Persian].
  44. Sadeghi, A. (2009). Freedom and History (Reflections on Hegel's Dialectic). The third edition, Tehran: Publication of questions. [In Persian].
  45. Schmid, Ch. (2013). Henri Lefebvre's theory of space production: towards a three-dimensional dialectic. Translated by Aydin Turkmeh, Tehran: Tisa Publications. [In Persian].
  46. Schmidt, C. (2010). Law and violence, an essay on the concept of political affairs. Translated by Saleh Najafi, second edition, Tehran: Rokhdad Nou. [In Persian].
  47. Sedgwick, P. (2011). Descartes to Derrida: A Review of European Philosophy. Translated by Mohammad Reza Akhundzadeh, Tehran: Ney Publishing. [In Persian].
  48. Sherman, D. (2011). Hegelian self-awareness and French post-structuralists. translated by Mohammad Mahdi Ardabili and Payam Zoghi, Tehran: Rokhdad Nou. [In Persian].
  49. Smith, A. D. (2011). Nationalism and modernism. Translated by Kazem Firouzmand, first edition, Tehran: Third Edition. [In Persian].
  50. Stace, W. T. (2008). Hegel's philosophy. Translated by Hamid Enayat, first volume, ninth edition, Tehran: Amirkabir Publications. [In Persian].
  51. Strauss, L. (2007). What is political philosophy?. Translation of Farhang Rajaee, third edition, Tehran: Scientific and Cultural Publications. [In Persian].
  52. Tabatabai, S. J. (1987). Three narratives of Hegel's political philosophy. Culture, 1, 1-12. [In Persian].
  53. Thank you, A. (2007). Iranian intellectuals (narratives of despair and hope). Translated by Abbas Mokhbar, 4th edition, Tehran: Tehsehan Publishing House. [In Persian].
  54. Ullman, G. (2010). Towards a new world order, an introduction to the honor of the earth by Carl Schmidt. Translated by Ali Abbas Beigi and Mojtabi Golmohammadi, second edition, Tehran: Rokhdad Nou. [In Persian].
  55. Vahdat, F. (2003). Iran's intellectual encounter with modernity. Translated by Mehdi Haqiratkhah, 4th edition, Tehran: Qaqnoos Publishing. [In Persian].
  56. Vincent, A. (1992). State theories. Translated by Hossein Bashirieh, Tehran: Ney Publishing. [In Persian].
  57. Zakirzadeh, A. (2008). German idealism (from Wolff to the new followers of Kant). Abadan: Publication of questions. [In Persian].