Investigating the effects of globalization on changing the cultural lifestyle of villagers (Case study: villages of Southern Lilan district, Malekan County)

Document Type : Research Paper


1 Department of Geography and Rural Planning, Faculty of Planning and Environmental Sciences, Tabriz University, Tabriz, Iran.

2 Department of Geography and Rural Planning, Faculty of Geographical Sciences, Khwarazmi University, Tehran, Iran.



Extended Abstract
Globalization is the dominant force that changes the economy and rural communities at the beginning of the 21st century. It has been a pervasive influence in changing the shape of rural areas, which simultaneously brings challenges and opportunities for rural development. Rural places have undergone different changes due to globalization in the last few decades. Concerning rural areas, as can be seen, these areas in the world are different and have their characteristics and structures. Therefore, the capacity of these regions to shape their future in the context of globalization will also be different. Villages as places on a local scale with their own identity, culture, way of living, and living spaces are becoming increasingly global. These villages worldwide are subject to severe changes and highly dependent on social and economic processes. In relation to this topic, today, globalization as a comprehensive phenomenon has many effects on the lifestyle of rural areas, which can be investigated, analyzed, and diagnosed from different aspects. But one of the most tangible aspects of the effects of globalization is the change in the lifestyle of the villagers in various economic, social, cultural, and environmental aspects of the villages.
Research in the quantitative part tries to investigate the effects of globalization on the changes in the cultural lifestyle of the residents of the rural areas of the Southern Lian District. To achieve this goal, he uses statistical methods and tests. On the other hand, from the point of view of research classification based on the purpose, it is of applied type; because it seeks to apply theories, laws, principles, and techniques formulated in basic research to solve practical and real problems. Also, in terms of the possibility of controlling the variables, the research is quasi-experimental because, due to the post-event nature of the research, it is impossible to control the variables completely. The information collected in the research was based on two library and field methods. In the library method, a review of the research background and literature was considered, and in the field method, the questionnaire created by the researcher was considered. According to the variables of the research and also the method of analysis, the questionnaire was prepared in the form of open and closed questions and also included spectrums in the form of a Likert scale in the nominal and rank measurement scale and in some aspects, an interval, and was given to the participants. In connection with the information gathering tool (questionnaire), to ensure the similarity of the questions taken from previous research with the research variables and to reveal the face validity of these indicators and their similarity with the villages of the study area, academic experts in the field of rural planning were investigated. After receiving their opinions, the required parts of the questionnaire were revised, and a number of unimportant questions were removed. Cronbach's alpha test was used to check the research questionnaire data's reliability. Therefore, a sample of 30 questionnaires was first distributed to the target population, and according to Cronbach's alpha value, the final revision of the questionnaire was made and distributed to the relevant sample. Finally, for the present study, the value of Cronbach's alpha for all research variables was 0.748, which has an acceptable level.
Results and Discussion
In the research, 372 participants cooperated in answering the questionnaire questions. In order to select these samples, considering the issue's importance, we tried to evaluate the standards by all groups of rural society as much as possible while randomly selecting the samples; because the changes in the dimensions of the research will be different from the point of view of the studied community. Residents of rural areas feel significant changes in rural environments compared to the past, considering the dimensions of social lifestyle. In investigating these changes in the four dimensions of model- driven, language change, consumerism, and the sense of belonging to the village, and using the method of statistical tests, we try to investigate these changes. The selection of parametric and non-parametric statistical tests for analysis is different depending on the assumptions of each one. For this selection, the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test was exerted to check the normality of the data. Based on the standard coefficients, the relative importance of each of the independent variables in explaining and predicting the dependent variable has been revealed. According to the results, the components of model-driven, language change, consumerism, and sense of belonging play a prominent role in explaining and predicting lifestyle changes in the villages of the study area, respectively. In this, the model-driven variable is the most important because one change in this index's standard deviation causes the dependent variable's standard deviation (Lifestyle) to change by 0.740. At the same time, a unit change in the standard deviation of other dimensions will result in changes of 0.737, 0.529, 0.450, 0.439, and 0.350, respectively, in the dependent variable dimensions.
Now, the future of rural spaces is facing more complex issues than before, one of which is the phenomenon of globalization and changes in cultural lifestyles in these areas. The phenomenon of globalization has put different changes in the cultural lifestyle of the residents in rural areas, and it has focused and examined the aspects of globalization in four dimensions, model-driven, language change, consumerism, and sense of belonging. These dimensions were the totality of the research, whose interpretation was considered in the cultural lifestyle change. The studied rural areas, like other areas, are often engaged in agricultural activities due to natural conditions. These activities are also seen in the residential context of rural areas, and most rural spaces are dedicated to these activities. According to the research findings, the studied rural areas feel great changes in the rural environment from different aspects compared to the past, which is significantly related to the effects of globalization. The research results indicate that the most changes and effects of globalization have been on model-driven components and the change of the local language and dialect of the residents in the studied rural areas. In the indicators of language change, as it is known, residents have less tendency to use local dialects due to globalization, and most of the residents use non-local expressions and terms in their dialect. In general, the research results show that the changes in the cultural lifestyle among rural areas are in the transition from tradition to modernity. Therefore, the research shows the attention and preservation of rural values along with the changes in cultural lifestyle in the studied rural areas.
There is no funding support.
Authors’ Contribution
Authors contributed equally to the conceptualization and writing of the article. All of the authors approved thecontent of the manuscript and agreed on all aspects of the work declaration of competing interest none.
Conflict of Interest
Authors declared no conflict of interest.
We are grateful to all the scientific consultants of this paper.


Main Subjects

آقاجان‌بگلو، سوسن؛ بذرافکن، حمیرا و روحانی، علی. (1392). بررسی رابطه رسانه‌ها دیداری و انتخاب الگوی زندگی. زن و جامعه، 4(1)، 163- 141.
بذرافشان، جواد و طولابی نژاد، مهرشاد. (1395). بررسی آثار نوسازی بر تغییر و تحولات سبک زندگی خانوارهای روستایی بخش مرکزی شهرستان پلدختر. جغرافیا و توسعه، 15(46)، 78- 61.                                          
زارعی، بهادر؛ مقدم، فاطمه و شفیع، شهاب‌الدین. (1395). تأثیر جهانی‌شدن بر تحولات اقتصادی، اجتماعی و فرهنگی منطقه خلیج‌فارس. پژوهش‌های جغرافیای انسانی، 48(3)، 576- 557.                          
جونز اندرو. (1391). نظریه‌پردازان بزرگ جهانی‌شدن. ترجمه مسعود کرباسیان و هامایک آوادیس یانس، تهران: انتشارات چشمه.
چراغی، سارا؛ نظری، ولی‌الله و شهریار، فاطمه. (1400). بررسی اثرات تنوع فرهنگی در ساخت هویت شهری (نمونه موردی: منطقه 6 شهر کرج). پژوهش‌های جغرافیای انسانی، 53(4)، 1377.                 
حکیم زاده، رضوان. (1389). جهانی‌شدن: بین‌المللی شدن آموزش عالی و برنامه‌های درسی میان‌رشته‌ای. مطالعات میان‌رشته‌ای در علوم انسانی، 2(4)، 17- 1.                                                                              
ذکایی، محمد سعید. (1391). مصرف و سبک زندگی، رویکردها، مسائل و آسیب‌ها. رسانه، 22(2)، 34 -5.
رضوی‌زاده، سید نورالدین. (1384). بررسی تأثیر رسانه‌ها بر تمایل به تغییر سبک زندگی روستایی. علوم اجتماعی (دانشگاه علامه طباطبایی)، 12(31)، 50- 24.                                                     
سجاسی قیداری، حمدالله؛ صادقلو، طاهره و شهدادی، علی. (1394). اثرات جهانی‌شدن بر تغییرات سبک زندگی در نواحی روستایی. مطالعات میان رشته‌ای در علوم انسانی، 7 (4)، 159 -153.                                 
سجاسی قیداری، حمدالله (1395). تدوین راهبردهای مدیریت فرآیند جهانی‌شدن در مناطق روستایی کشور. مطالعات راهبردی بسیج، 19(70)، 216- 189.                                                                                                               20.1001.1.1735501.1395.
شهابی، محمود و ذکایی، محمد سعید. (1391). واکاوی سبک زندگی در جامعه امروز. کتاب علوم اجتماعی، 16(60)، 13- 4.
صابونچی، زهره. (1395). تحلیل چالش‌های توسعه فضاهای روستایی در فرآیند جهانی‌شدن با رویکرد آینده‌پژوهی (با تأکید بر روستاهای خراسان رضوی). رساله دکتری، دانشکده ادبیات و علوم انسانی، گروه جغرافیا و برنامه‌ریزی روستایی، دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد.
طباطبایی، سید احمد. (1387). جهانی‌شدن و سیطره موج‌های قدرت در مدیریت بخش عمومی. کنفرانس بین‌المللی اخلاق حرفه‌ای در مسیر پیوستن به سازمان تجارت جهانی.
گیدنز، آنتونی. (1384). چشم‌اندازهای جهانی. ترجمه محمدرضا جلایی‌پور، چاپ دوم، تهران: انتشارات طرح نو.
مرکز آمار ایران. (1395). سرشماری عمومی نفوس و مسکن آذربایجان شرقی.                             
نجار زاده، محمد. (1391). تطبیق نظریات جهانی‌شدن فرهنگ در روستا بر اساس شاخص‌های سبک زندگی مطالعه موردی: دهستان براآن جنوبی شهرستان اصفهان. پژوهش‌های روستایی، 3(4)، 188- 161.
نوایی، جواد و سید موسوی، سید حسین (1392). فلسفه سیاسی اسلام و الزام‌های سبک زندگی تمدن‌آفرین. پژوهش‌های اجتماعی اسلامی، 19(98)، 62- 39.
وثوقی، منصور؛ ایمانی، علی و کاظمی، علی. (1388). جهانی‌شدن و تحولات ساختاری در جامعه روستایی. جامعه‌شناسی معاصر، 2(1)، 34- 5.
وودز، مایکل (1390). جغرافیای روستایی؛ فرآیندها، واکنش‌ها و تجربه‌های باز ساخت روستایی.، ترجمه محمدرضا رضوانی و صامت فرهادی، چاپ اول، تهران: انتشارات دانشگاه تهران.
هابرماس، یورگن. (1386). جهانی‌شدن و آینده دموکراسی: منظومه پساملی. ترجمه کمال پولادی، چاپ چهارم، تهران: انتشارات مرکز.
یاری حصار، ارسطو؛ حیدری، وکیل و نارینی، ریحانه. (1395). مطالعه تغییر سبک زندگی و اثرات و پیامدهای آن بر تولید و توسعه روستایی (مطالعه موردی: روستاهای شهرستان اردبیل). مطالعات توسعه اجتماعی ایران، 9(1)، 86- 69.
Aghajan Baglu, S., Bazrafken, H.,. & Ruhani, A. (2013). Examining the relationship between visual media and choosing a life pattern. Women and Society, 4(1), 141- 163. [In Persain].
Andrew. J. (2013). The Great Theoreticians of Globalization. translated by Masoud Karbasian and Hamaik Avadis Yanes, Cheshme Publications, 79. [In Persain].
Bardhan, P. (2006). Globalization and Rural Poverty. World Development, 34(8), 1361- 1373.
Bazrafshan, J., & Toulabi Nejad, M. (2017). Investigating the effects of modernization on the changes and changes in the lifestyle of rural households in the central part of Poldakhter city. Geography and Development, 15(46), 61- 78. [In Persain].
Bryant, C. R., Makhanya, E., & Herrmann., T. H. (2008). The Sustainability of Rural Systems in Developing Countries, Laboratoire de développement durable et dynamique territorial-Département de Géographie. Montreal, Université de Montréal. 978-2-921903-03-8.
Cheraghi, S., & Nazari, V. A. (2021). The Effects of Cultural Diversity on Urban Identity Construction (Case Study: Karaj District 6). Human Geography Research Quarterly, 53(4), 1377. [In Persain].
Cheshire, L., & Woods, M. (2013). Globally engaged farmers as transnational actors: Navigating the landscape of agri-food globalization. Geoforum, 44(4), 232- 242.
Farhud, D. D. (2015). Impact of lifestyle on health. Iranian journal of public health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, 44(11), 1442.
Flores, J.Á.H. (2020). Effects of Globalization and (RE) Localization on Latin American Rural Societies. Textual, (76), 161- 187.
Giddens, A. (2006). World Visions. translated by Mohammad Reza Jalaipour, Tehran: Publications: New Design, second edition. [In Persain].
Habermas, J. (2008). Globalization and the future of democracy: the post-national system. translated by Kamal Poladi, Tehran: Markaz Publications, 4th edition. [In Persain].
Hakimzadeh, R. (2011). Globalization: internationalization of higher education and interdisciplinary curricula. Interdisciplinary Studies in Human Sciences, 2(4), 1-17. [In Persain].
Held, D. A., McGrew, D., Goldblatt, & Perraton, J. (1999). Global Transformations: Politics, Economics and Culture. Cambridge: Polity. 602.
Hu, F.B. (2011). Globalization of diabetes: the role of diet, lifestyle, and genes. Diabetes care, 34(6), 1249- 1257.
Iran Statistics Center. (2017). General population and housing census of East Azerbaijan. [In Persain].
Kanbur, R. (2015). Globalization and inequality. In Handbook of income distribution, 2, 1845- 1881.
Machado, F. D. S. (2017). Rural change in the context of globalization: examining theoretical issues. Hungarian Geographical Bulletin, 66(1), 43- 53.
McDonagh, J., Nienaber, B., & Woods, M. (2015). Globalization and Europe’s rural regions. Ashgate Publishing, Ltd.
Najjarzadeh, M. (2013). Applying the theories of the globalization of culture in the village based on the life style indicators of a case study: South Braan Dehistan. Isfahan City. Rural Research, 3(4), 161- 188. [In Persain].
Navaei, J., & Seyed Mousavi, S. H. (2014). The political philosophy of Islam and the requirements of a civilizing lifestyle. Islamic Social Research, 19(98), 39- 62. [In Persain].
Ohmae, K. (1995). The End of the Nation State. New York: Free Press. 214 p.
Pavis, S., Cunningham-Burley, S., & Amos, A. (1998). Health related behavioural change in context: young people in transition. Social Science & Medicine, 47(10), 1407-1418.
Razavizadeh, N. (2006). A research on the Impact of Media on the Tendency to Change Rural Lifestyles. Journal of Social Sciences, 12(31), 24- 50. [In Persain].
Rigg, J. (2006). Land, farming, livelihoods, and poverty: Rethinking the links in the Rural South. World Development, 34(1), 180- 202.
Sabunchi, Z. (2017). Analysis of the development challenges of rural spaces in the process of globalization with a future research approach (with an emphasis on the villages of Razavi Khorasan). PhD thesis, Faculty of Literature and Human Sciences, Department of Geography and Rural Planning, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad. [In Persain].
Shahabi, M., & Zokaei, M. S. (2013). Analysis of lifestyle in today's society. Book of Social Sciences, 16(60), 4- 13. [In Persain].
Sojasi Qeidari, H., Sadeghlou, T., & Shahdadi, A. (2016). Effects of globalization on lifestyle changes in rural areas. Interdisciplinary Studies in Humanities, 7(4), 159- 153. [In Persain].
Sojasi Qeidari, H. (2015). Compilation of globalization process management strategies in rural areas of the country. Basij strategic studies, 19(70), 189- 216. [In Persain]. 20.1001.1.1735501.1395.
Tabatabaei, S. A. (2009). Globalization and dominance of power waves in public sector management. International Conference on Professional Ethics on the way to join the World Trade Organization. [In Persain].
Van der Ploeg, J. D., Ye, J. & Schneider, S. (2010). Rural development reconsidered: building on comparative perspectives from China, Brazil and the European Union, Rivista di Economia Agraria. Società Editrice il Mulino, 65(2),163- 190.
Veal, A. J. (1993). The concept of lifestyle: a review, Leisure Studies. Taylor & Francis, 12(4), 233- 252.
Vosooghi, M., Imani, A., & Kazemi, A. (2009). Globalization and structural changes in rural society. Journal of Contemporary Sociology, 2(1), 5- 34. [In Persain].
Wiilson, G. A. & Rigg, J. (2003). Post-productivist agricultural regimes and the South: discordant concepts?. Progress in Human Geography, 27(6), 681- 707..
Woods, M. (2007). Engaging the global countryside: globalization, hybridity and the reconstitution of rural place, Progress in Human geography. Sage Publications Sage UK: London, England, 31(4), 485– 507.
Woods, M. (2012). Rural geography; Processes, reactions and experiences of rural reconstruction, translated by Mohammad Reza Rezvani and Samet Farhadi, Tehran: Tehran University Press, first edition. [In Persain].
Woods, M. (2013). Regions engaging globalization: a typology of regional responses in rural Europe. Journal of Rural and Community Development, 8(3), 112– 126.
Woods, M., & McDonagh, J. (2011). Rural Europe and the world: Globalization and rural development. European Countryside, Sciendo, 3(3), 153- 163. DOI: 10.2478/v10091-012-0001-z.
Woods, M., Nienaber, B. & McDonagh, J. (2015). Globalization Processes and the Restructuring of Europe’s Rural Regions. Globalization and Europe’s Rural Regions. Ashgate Farnham, UK, Pp. 199– 221.
Yari hesar, A., heidari, V., & Narini, R. (2017). A Study of the Effects of Lifestyle Changes and its Consequences on Rural Production and Development (Case of Study: Ardabil Rural Areas). Journal of Iranian Social Development Studies, 9(1), 69- 86. [In Persain].
Zarei, B., Moghaddam, F., & Shahabeddin, Sh. (2016). The Impact of Globalization on Economic, Social and Cultural Developments in Persian Gulf Region. Human Geography Research Quarterly, 48(3), 558. [In Persain].
Zakaei, M. S. (2013). Consumption and lifestyle, approaches, issues and damages, Media, 22(2), 5- 34. [In Persain].