Identification of drivers and effective actors in transforming Isfahan into an Islamic global city

Document Type : Extracted from the dissertation


Department of Urban Planning, Faculty of Geographical Sciences and Planning, University of Isfahan, Iran.



Extended Abstract
In order to become a world power, every country needs to dominate the economy and communication ways in order to expand its sphere of influence in the world through production and export. Iranian civilization in the pre-Islamic period and in the flourishing era of Islamic civilization was the superior power of the Middle East by dominating land and sea routes. In this period, the most important land transit route in the world until the 15th century was the Silk Road, which, due to the high volume of transportation, was the basis for the emergence and development of cities and connected the big cities of that time to each other and caused their globalization. you will The most important of these cities in this period were Samarkand, Bukhara, Merv, Nishapur, Ray, Tabriz, Trabuzan and Baghdad, which with the decline of Eastern civilization and the rise of Western civilization, due to the position of Western countries and the differences between Islamic countries and the West, sea routes were developed. And the land routes and the cities on the way became less developed, so that today more than 80% of world trade is done through sea transportation and this type of transportation is based on The main is the global economy and of course, most of the global cities and the world's first level cities (Tokyo, London and New York) are located on the coast of the oceans. This trend shows that the flow of urban capital from the central regions of the continents has been directed to the peripheral regions of the continents, and this has strengthened the countries with a sea-based economy, and the large and old cities of the Middle East have suffered the most from this change in direction
The current research, with a future-research approach, identifies the most important factors affecting the transformation of Isfahan into an Islamic global city and identifies key players in this field. This research is practical in terms of purpose, and according to the components under investigation, the governing approach is descriptive-analytical. Environmental scanning and Delphi techniques have been used to identify variables and indicators, and structural analysis has been used in MicMac software and Mactor model for data analysis. In scenario-based studies, the expertise and knowledge of experts has been preferred over the general quantity. And the desired sample size should not be less than 25 people. In this research, in order to consciously select the participants, the purposeful sampling method has been used. The statistical population of this research is 50 expert experts in the field of urban issues, including municipal experts, doctoral students and university professors, cultural heritage and tourism experts, stock exchange experts, and engineers of Consulting Engineers. In this research, in order to maintain the validity of the questionnaire, all the items that measure the research variables (the same factors that are effective in transforming Isfahan into an Islamic global city) were used from the previous research items that were conducted under the supervision of experienced professors. Also, the opinions of professors and experts of this subject were also used during the interviews to compile the appropriate items for the research topic. Also, the reliability coefficient that enables the validity of the results of these questionnaires to generalize to the statistical community was obtained through Cronbach's alpha test and SPSS software, and the reliabilities of all of them were confirmed. In the last stage of this research, the key players have been identified through Mactor software
Results and discussion
In this research, firstly, with a future research approach, the identification and analysis of the factors influencing the emergence of Isfahan city as a world-class city, then in the next stage, according to the key factors, the key players who play a role in realizing the policies of Isfahan's transformation to the The Islamic global city has been identified using the Mactor model and the level of competitiveness and competence of these actors has been investigated. For this purpose, in order to identify the factors influencing Isfahan city as a global-Islamic city, two techniques of environmental scanning and Delphi have been used. The results of this stage include 51 primary indicators. Based on the results of 16 main variables including GDP growth rate, urban market dynamics, variety of goods and competitiveness of goods prices, hosting of large international companies (top 500 global companies), urban population, number of direct international flights, number of large hotels, The number of foreign visitors, the diversity of energy production, the attraction capacity of tourist sites, being located on the main transportation routes, the government's low involvement in the market and market supervision, the establishment of international banks, the existence of international stock exchanges, the number of universities Superiority and the amount of foreign direct investment were obtained as the key drivers effective in transforming Isfahan into an Islamic city.
The purpose of this research is to identify the effective key drivers and rank the main institutions and organizations in upgrading the city of Isfahan to an Islamic global city. Therefore, among the 51 main variables, 16 main variables include the rate of growth of the GDP, the dynamics of the urban market, the variety of goods and the competitiveness of the prices of goods, the hosting of large international companies (top 500 global companies), the amount of urban population, the number of direct international flights. the number of large hotels, the number of foreign visitors, the diversity of energy production, the attraction capacity of tourist sites, being located on the main transportation routes, the government's low involvement in the market and carrying out market supervision, the establishment of international banks, the existence of stock exchanges international, the number of top universities and the amount of foreign direct investment were found as the key drivers effective in transforming Isfahan into an Islamic global city. Therefore, among the 6 main actors among the institutions of internal influence, the Ministry of Roads and Urban Development and the Ministry of Economy are the most contributors to the foundation and Chinese context of transforming Iran's cities into Islamic cities
Based on the research findings, the number of 16 key drivers in transforming the city of Isfahan into an Islamic global city was obtained. Also, based on the findings obtained from the first part and the results obtained from the opinion of the experts, 6 main actors were identified, the most influential actors in transforming Isfahan into an Islamic global city are the Ministry of Roads and Urban Development at 29% and the Ministry of Economy and The Ministry of Science is 15%.
Authors’ Contribution
Authors contributed equally to the conceptualization and writing of the article. All of the authors approved the content of the manuscript and agreed on all aspects of the work declaration of competing interest none.
Conflict of Interest
Authors declared no conflict of interest.
We are grateful to all the scientific consultants of this paper.


Main Subjects

اسکندری نسب، محمد؛ نادری بنی، عباس و حسینوند شکری، روح ا... . (1397). بررسی تطبیقی امکان تحقق هم‌زمان دکترین ام القرای جمهوری اسلامی و شهر جهانی در مورد شهر تهران. ماهنامه آفاق علوم انسانی، 12(1)، 65-45.
بمات، نجم الدین. (1393). شهر اسلامی. محمدحسین حلیمی، منیژه اسلامبولچی، تهران: سازمان چاپ و انتشارات.
پور احمد، احمد؛ قرخلو، مهدی و موسوی، سیروس. (1390). بررسی مفاهیم و شاخص‌های نظریه شهر جهانی. فصلنامه باغ نظر، 16(8)، 42-29.
خدابخشی، لطیف. (1383). کریدور شمال – جنوب 5000 کیلومتر نزدیک‌تر، 30 درصد ارزان‌تر. مجله روند اقتصادی، 10 (1)، 53-46.
خضرپور، محمد؛ صمدیان، منیرالسادات و بیگدلو، رضا. (1397). تحلیل و شناسایی عوامل مؤثر بر برقراری امینت پایدار در راستای حل معضل کولبری، موردمطالعه شهرستان‌های پیرانشهر، سردشت، بانه و مریوان. پژوهشنامه جغرافیای انتظامی، 6 (24). 37 – 67.
ساسن، سسکیا. (1393). جهان شهرها، نیویورک، لندن و توکیو. مهدی داودی، مرکز مطالعات و برنامه‌ریزی شهر تهران.
رئیسی، محمد منان. (1397). معماری و شهرسازی مطابق با سبک زندگی اسلامی، از تشریح وضع مطلوب تا تحلیل وضع موجود، انتشارات دانشگاه قم.
رئیسی، محمد منان. (1395). اندازه مطلوب شهر و حومه از منظر فقه شیعی. فصلنامه مدیریت شهری، 43(5)، 20-7.
رهبر، فرهاد؛ سیف‌الدین اصل، امیرعلی؛ شاه‌حسینی، محمدعلی و نیازی، عیسی. (1397). طراحی مدلی برای سناریو نگاری بر اساس عوامل کلیدی و تجزیه‌وتحلیل فعل‌وانفعالات بازیگران کلیدی. پژوهش‌های مدیریت عمومی، 11 (39) 61 – 90.
مردانی، سیده زهرا. (1394). طبقه‌بندی آراء متفکران مطالعات شهر اسلامی. فصلنامه باغ نظر، 35(8)، 72-65.
میرزایی، رقیه. (1396). کاربرد ایده مسئله تکنیک میشل گوده در آینده‌نگاری توسعه منطقه‌ای، موردمطالعه: استان تهران. پایان‌نامه کارشناسی ارشد. دانشگاه گیلان، دانشکده معماری و هنر، گروه مهندسی شهرسازی.
مرکز آمار ایران. (1398). جایگاه اقتصادی و اجتماعی و فرهنگی استان‌های کشور 1398-1394.
نورعلی، حسن و احمدی، سید عباس. (1401). واکاوی نقش ژئوپلیتیکی ایران در کریدورهای بین‌المللی و ارائه مدل ایران، هارتلند کریدوری جهان. فصلنامه جغرافیای انسانی، 54(3)، 1187-1161.
نورعلی، حسن و احمدی، سید عباس. (1399). بررسی نقش بندرها در نظریه‌های جغرافیای سیاسی / ژئوپلیتیک و ارائه نظریه قدرت بندری. فصلنامه پژوهش‌های جغرافیای سیاسی، 5(4) 114-91.
لاریجانی، محمدجواد. (1368). مقولاتی در استراتژی ملی. تهران: مرکز ترجمه و نشر کتاب.
هینتس، والتر. (1361). تشکیل دولت ملی در ایران. کیکاووس جهانداری، تهران: انتشارات خوارزمی
A.T. Kearney Institution annual report 2016 & 2020.
Alderson, A. S., & Beckfield, J., (2004). Power and position in the world city system. The American Journal of Sociology, 109(4), 811–851.
Bemmate, N., (2014). Islamic City. Mohammad Hossein Halimi & Manijeh Islambolchi, Tehran, Printing and Publishing Organization. [In Persian].
Eskandari Nasab, M., Naderi Bani, A., & Hosseinvand Shokri, R., (2017). A Comparative Study of the Possibility of Simultaneous Realization of the Doctrine of the Islamic Republic and the World City about Tehran. Afagh Humanities Monthly, 3(12), 45-65. [In Persian].
Falahat, S. (2014) Re-imaging the City. Springer Fachmedien Wiesbaden.DOI 10.1007/978-3-658-04596-8_1,
Grunebaum, Gustav E. von. ‘Die Islamische Stadt’. Saeculum 6. Islam: Essays in the Nature and Growth of a Cultural Tradition. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1955.
Hintz, W. (1993). Formation of the national government in Iran. Kikavos Jahandari, Tehran: Kharazmi Publications. [In Persian].
Hussain, O. A., Zaidi, F., & Rozenblat, C., (2018). Analyzing diversity, strength and centrality of cities using networks of multinational firms. Networks and Spatial Economics.
Kazemi, H., & Mohammadi, J. (2023). Investigating the influential indicators in the transformation of an Iranian city into an Islamic global city (case study: Isfahan city). Geography Magazine, 74(12), 118-99. [In Persian].
Khezrpour, M., Samadian, M., & Bigdalo, R. (2017). Analysis and identification of factors affecting the establishment of stable trust in order to solve the Kolbari problem, studied in the cities of Piranshahr, Sardasht, Baneh and Marivan. Journal of Police Geography, 6 (24). 37-67. [In Persian].
Khodabakhshi, L. (2004). North-South Corridor 5000km Closer, 30% Cheaper. Journal of Economic Trends, 10(1), 46-53. [In Persian].
Larijani, M.J. (1989). Categories in National Strategy. Book Translation and Publishing Center. [In Persian].
Malcais, W. (1921). Les corps de metiers et la cite islamique. Revue international de sociologie, 28.
Mardani, S.Z. (2015). Classification of the Opinions of Islamic City Studies Thinkers. Bagh-e Nazar Quarterly, 12(35), 65-72. [In Persian].
Mirzaei, R. (2016). The application of Michel Goudeh's technique problem idea in regional development foresight, study case: Tehran province. Master's thesis. Gilan University, Faculty of Architecture and Art, Department of Urban Engineering. [In Persian].
Mori Memorial Foundation (2020). Global Power City Index (GPCI) (https://www.
Morris, A.E.J. (1994). History of Urban Form. before the industrial revolutions. 3'" ed.
Harlow, Essex, England: Longman Scientific & Technical: New York: Wiley.
Neuma W. (2007). Social research methods. 6thed. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education, London.
Nur Ali, H., & Ahmadi, S. A. (2019). Examining the role of ports in political geography / geopolitics theories and presenting the theory of port power. Political Geography Research Quarterly, 5(4) 91-114. [In Persian].
Nur Ali, H., & Ahmadi, S.A. (2022). Analyzing Iran's geopolitical role in international corridors and presenting Iran's model, Heartland Corridor of the World. Human Geography Quarterly, 54(3), 1161-1187. [In Persian].
PourAhmad, A., Gharkhloo, M., & Mousavi, S. (2011). Study of concepts and indicators of the theory of the world city. Bagh-e Nazar Quarterly, 8(16). 42-29. [In Persian].
Rahbar, F., Saifuddin Asl, A.A., Shah Hosseini, M. A., & Niazi, I. (2017). Designing a model for scenario planning based on key factors and analyzing the interactions of key actors. Public Management Research, 11 (39) 61-90. [In Persian].
Raisi, M, M. (2015). The optimal size of the city and the suburbs from the perspective of Shiite jurisprudence. Urban Management Quarterly, 43(5), 7-20. [In Persian].
Raisi, M, M. (2017). Architecture and urban planning in accordance with the Islamic lifestyle. from the description of the ideal situation to the analysis of the current situation, Qom University Publications. [In Persian].
Raymond, A. (2005). Urban Life and Middle Eastern Cities, the traditioual Arab city. In: Youssef, M. Choueiri, ed. A companwn to the History of the Middle East. Malden, MA: Blackwell Pub. Ltd. 207-226
Raymond, A. (2008). The Spatial Organization of the City. In: R. Holod, A. Petruccioli, A. Raymond, eds. The City in Islamic World. Vol. I. Leiden, Boston: BRILL. 47-70
Saoud, R. (2002) Introduction to the Islamic city, foundation for scince technology and civilization.
Sassen, S. (1991). The global city. Princeton NJ: Princeton University Press.
Sassen, S. (2001). The global city (2nd ed.). Princeton NJ: Princeton University Press.
Sassen, S. (2013). global Cities, New York, London and Tokyo. Mehdi Davoudi, Tehran City Planning and Studies Center. [In Persian].
Sassen, S. (Ed.). (2002). Global networks, linked cities. London: Routledge.
Statistical Center of Iran. (2019). The economic, social and cultural status of the provinces of the country 2015-2019. [In Persian].
Strategia, A. (2013). Participatory Policy Making Foresight Studes At The Regional Level A Methedological Approach. Regional Science Inquiry Journal, 5(1), 145-160.
Vince, V. (2003). Maritime Transport and Port Operations. The Global Facilitation
Partnership for Transportation and Trade, 11.
Wang, D., Du, z, Wu., (2020) Ranking global cities based on economic performance and climate change mitigation. Sustainable Cities and Society.