Analysis of Factors Affecting the Outflow of Financial Capital from the Agricultural Sector of Villages (Case: Dehgolan County, Iran)

Document Type : Extracted from the dissertation


Department of Human Geography, Faculty of Geographical Sciences, Khwarazmi University, Tehran, Iran.



Extended Abstract
Villages have traditionally been identified and sustained with agricultural activities and have become the source of capital production. A type of capital whose role has been neglected in rural development is the accumulation of financial capital produced from the agricultural sector of villages and transferred to urban areas in various ways and forms and spent there. The withdrawal of income from the production of agricultural products reduces cash for investment in agriculture and the rural economy. At the same time, it can be the basis for increasing agricultural productivity and creating a platform for improving rural development indicators. In Dehgolan county in Kurdistan province, a kind of capital outflow from villages to big cities has formed, along with other factors, has caused the economic instability of villages. Despite the high income, adequate financial capital, and rich resources, these villages have not been able to use this opportunity to improve their development indicators, and the incomes from work and agricultural production are transferred out of the village economy cycle and transferred to the cities. The present research has analyzed the causes and factors of capital outflow from the villages to the cities and its effects and consequences on the local economy in the villages of Dehgolan county.
This research is descriptive-analytical research in terms of practical purpose and in terms of method. The methodological approach of the research is based on the comparative method. The statistical population of this research is 105 villages of Dehgolan county, which are located in five districts. The sample community is 15 villages selected using the stratified probability sampling method. The investigated samples were determined at the level of all villages based on the multi-stage cluster method with proportional assignment method from the respondents, and 340 farmer households (out of 2997 households in the sample villages) were considered the sample size based on Cochran's formula. The necessary data were obtained using a researcher-made questionnaire. Experts approved the content and face validity of the questionnaire. Cronbach's alpha test was used to ensure the reliability of the questionnaire. The Kolmogorov-Smirnov normality test, Correlation Coefficient test in SPSS software, and Structural Equation Modeling in Smart PLS software were used for inferential data analysis.
Results and discussion
The current research has been carried out in line with research related to rural-urban links, with the difference that it has examined the relationship and effectiveness of each institutional-management, social, and economic factors with capital outflow from the villages and its transfer to the cities. In the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, the significance level of the test for all variables is less than 0.05. This means that the data distribution of these variables was abnormal. Thus, the non-parametric test of Spearman's correlation coefficient was used to determine the correlation between variables. In the Spearman correlation coefficient test, the significance level of the test between all research variables was less than 0.05. So, all the studied variables have a significant positive and direct correlation. The results of Cronbach's alpha coefficient and composite reliability of the variables show that the value of Cronbach's alpha coefficient and composite reliability is acceptable for all research structures. According to the results of the structural models seen in the second-order confirmatory factor analysis model, institutional-management factors with a factor load of 0.315, social factors with a factor load of 0.309, and economic factors with a factor load of 0.124, respectively, are the highest. According to farmers, they have the least impact on capital outflow from the villages. Therefore, the development and support policies of the government as an influential factor in the villages can lead to social and economic development by strengthening the villages' infrastructure and increasing the villagers' motivation to keep their capital in the village by guaranteeing economic security. Accordingly, the uncertain economic outlook for rural capitalists will be a justifiable reason for them to prefer to invest in a more secure environment (in the city).
Capital outflow is a phenomenon with institutional-management, economic, and social roots; if it flows from rural areas to cities, it will intensify the inequality and instability of villages. Based on this research, the most important institutional-management factors that affect the capital outflow from the village, which in the main of them are the weakness of the government sector's support and policies from other sectors (private, cooperative, and small operators) for investment in the village, the lack and weakness of the government's investment in rural infrastructure (such as physical development, cultural development, etc.). Also, the most important economic factors from the point of view of the activists of the agricultural sector in the villages are income generation and ensuring the return of capital, areas of investment in the city (land and housing, industries, banks, etc.), investment efficiency in the urban economy, employment security and activity in the urban economy. The benefit of investing in the city compared to the countryside and the flexibility of capital in the city can be mentioned. Among the most important social factors (aligned and related to economic reasons) are the motivation to invest in the urban economy (due to profitability and capital efficiency, return on investment, government support, etc.), well-being, and a sense of psychological and social security. Investing in the city is pointed out. Based on the results of this research, some suggestions are presented as follows:
- Increasing government investment in rural infrastructure (such as physical development, cultural development, etc.);
- Applying incentive policies for villagers to invest in different sectors of the rural economy (for example, tourism, information and communication technology, etc.) and activating local managers and giving them more powers;
- Giving investment motivation and economic security to the target groups (major farmers), such as reducing taxes in case of keeping capital and circulating it in the cycle of the rural economy.
There is no funding support.
Authors’ Contribution
Authors contributed equally to the conceptualization and writing of the article. All of the authors approved the content of the manuscript and agreed on all aspects of the work declaration of competing interest none.
Conflict of Interest
Authors declared no conflict of interest.
 We are grateful to all the scientific consultants of this paper.


Main Subjects

افضلی ابرقویی، وجیهه و خانی قریه‌گپی، نوشین. (1389). علل و آثار فرار سرمایه در اقتصاد ایران، روزنامه دنیای اقتصاد، شماره 2094.
اهلرس، اکارت. (1380). شهر، روستا و عشایر. ترجمه عباس سعیدی. تهران: انتشارات منشی.
سازمان مدیریت و برنامه‌ریزی استان کردستان (1398). بازنگری و تهیه سند آمایش استان کردستان.
بوبک، هانس. (1390). در بارة مفهوم سرمایه‌داری بهره‌بری. در: سعیدی، عباس، روابط و پیوندهای روستایی- شهری در ایران. صص 33-50.
پاپلی یزدی، محمدحسین و ابراهیمی، محمدامیر. ‌(1387). نظریه‌های توسعه روستایی. تهران: انتشارات سمت.
پاپلی یزدی، محمدحسین و رجبی ستاجردی، حسین. (1382). نظریه‌های شهر و پیرامون. چاپ اول. تهران: انتشارات سمت.
تره، آندره و والت، فریدریک. (2016). توسعه منطقه‌ای در روستاها (ابزارهای تحلیلی و سیاست‌های عمومی). ترجمه شهرام رئیسی دهکردی. چاپ اول. تهران: انتشارات پیک نور، زمستان 1396.
جلالیان، حمید. (1396). جایگاه روستا در برنامه‌ریزی منطقه‌ای. چاپ اول. تهران: انتشارات سمت.
داگلاس، مایک. (1998). استراتژی‌های ایجاد شبکه منطقه‌ای به‌منظور تقویت پیوندهای میان روستا و شهر (دستور کاری برای پژوهش‌های سیاست‌گذاری با اشاره به کشور اندونزی). مترجم سوسن چاره‌جو. نشریه علوم اجتماعی، 20، 86-95.
دانشنامه مدیریت شهری و روستایی. (1387). چاپ اول. تهران: انتشارات موسسه فرهنگی، اطلاع‌رسانی و مطبوعاتی.
رکن‌الدین افتخاری، عبدالرضا؛ بدری، سیدعلی و سجاسی قیداری، حمداله. (1393). بنیان‌های نظریه‌ای کالبدی مناطق روستایی. چاپ دوم. تهران: انتشارات بنیاد مسکن انقلاب اسلامی.
رضوانی، محمدرضا؛ اکبریان رونیزی، سعید رضا و رجایی، سید عباس. (1387). نقش وجوه ارسالی و سرمایه‌گذاری در توسعه روستایی (دهستان رامشه اصفهان). پژوهش‌های جغرافیایی انسانی (پژوهش‌های جغرافیایی)، 40 (66)، 1-16.
رهنمایی، محمدتقی. (1388). دولت و شهرنشینی (مبانی و اصول کلی نظریه شهر و شهرنشینی). فصلنامه جغرافیا و برنامه‌ریزی منطقه‌ای، 1 (پیش‌شماره)، 143-165.
رهنمایی، محمدتقی و امیریان، سهراب. (1384). مروری بر نقش دولت در گسترش و تمرکز شهرنشینی در ایران. انجمن جغرافیایی ایران، 1، 40-19.
رنجبر، محسن (1386). بررسی پدیده فرار سرمایه از ایران (دوره جمهوری اسلامی)، پایان‌نامه کارشناسی ارشد، دانشگاه تهران، به راهنمایی احمد موثقی.
سعیدی، عباس و عزیزپور، فرهاد. (1383). شبکه‌های ناحیه‌ای و توسعه محلی با تأکید بر پیوندهای روستایی- شهری؛ نمونه موردی: شبکه تولید شیر در ناحیه لیتکوه (آمل/ مازندران). فصلنامه جغرافیا، 2 (2)، 18-1.
سواری ممبنی، آمنه؛ خسروی پور، بهمن؛ برادران، مسعود؛ و یزدان پناه، مسعود. (1396). کاربرد نظریه شغلی اجتماعی در تببین عوامل مؤثر بر تمایل جوانان روستایی پیرامون اشتغال در بخش کشاورزی (موردمطالعه: شهرستان باغملک). تحقیقات اقتصاد و توسعه کشاورزی ایران (علوم کشاورزی ایران)، 48 (2)، 287-298.
شمس، علی؛ قدیمی، مینا؛ میرک‌زاده، علی اصغر؛ و هوشمندان مقدم فرد، زهرا. (1394). دلایل بی‌انگیزگی جوانان روستایی به اشتغال در بخش کشاورزی (موردمطالعه: شهرستان بوئین‌زهرا). تحقیقات اقتصاد و توسعه کشاورزی ایران (علوم کشاورزی ایران)، 46-2 (4)، 859-869.
طالشی، مصطفی؛ جمعه‌پور، محمود و گنجی‌پور، محمود. (1394). نقش سرمایه‌گذاری‌های دولت در ظرفیت‌سازی مناطق روستایی ) نمونه موردی: روستاهای ناحیه آران و بیدگل (. فصلنامه برنامه‌ریزی منطقه‌ای، 5 (17)، 59-74.
طاهرخانی، مهدی و رکن‌الدین افتخاری، عبدالرضا. (1383). تحلیل نقش روابط متقابل شهر و روستا در تحول نواحی روستایی استان قزوین. مجله مدرس علوم انسانی، 8 (4) پیاپی 35، 79-112.
علی‌پور، علیرضا و موسوی، حبیب‌الله. (1397). تحلیل اثرات رشد بخش غیر کشاورزی بر مهاجرت نیروی کار از بخش کشاورزی در ایران. فصلنامه اقتصاد فضا و توسعه روستایی، 7 (26)، 189-210.   
قاسمی سیانی، محمد؛ افراخته، حسن؛ عزیزپور، فرهاد و ریاحی، وحید. (1398). تحلیلی بر یکپارچگی فضایی نواحی روستایی مبتنی بر تحلیل شبکه‌ای جریان‌های فضایی (موردشناسی: بخش بن رود و جلگه شهرستان اصفهان). فصلنامه جغرافیا و آمایش شهری، 9 (31)، 35-52.                                                                                                                                     10.22111/GAIJ.2019.4694 doi:
قادرمرزی، حامد. (1390). گسترش فضایی شهر و تغییر کاربری زمین در روستاهای پیرامونی شهر سنندج؛ طی دوره 1355-1387. فصلنامه مطالعات شهری، (1)1، 76-61.
قادرمرزی، حامد. (1394). برنامه‌ریزی راهبردی توسعه اشتغال در نواحی روستایی شهرستان جوانرود. فصلنامه اقتصاد فضا و توسعه روستایی، 4 (1)، 130-109.  
محمدی، هادی؛ فلیحی، نعمت و باقرآبادی، صمد. (1392). تحلیل عوامل مؤثر بر اشتغال بخش کشاورزی (مطالعه موردی شهرستان‌های ایلام، کردستان، کرمانشاه و همدان). فصل‌نامه اقتصاد مالی، 7 (22)، 115-135.
                                                                                                                                  20.1001.1.25383833.1392. ِDoi:
مرکز آمار ایران. (1395). سرشماری عمومی نفوس مسکن. استان کردستان.
مرکز آمار ایران. (1395). فرهنگ آبادی‌های استان کردستان. سرشماری عمومی نفوس مسکن.
مرکز توسعه روستایی و مناطق محروم ریاست جمهوری. (1395). کمیته آمار و اطلاعات مناطق روستایی. تهران.
مهرگان، نادر؛ و یاوری، کاظم. (1385). جریان سرمایه از بخش‌های مولد به بخش خدمات در اقتصاد ایران. فصلنامه پژوهش‌های رشد و توسعه پایدار (پژوهش‌های اقتصادی)، 6(2)، 41-57.
وارثی، حمیدرضا؛ بیک محمدی، حسن و قنبری، سیروس. (1389). مقایسه خسارات اقتصادی خشک‌سالی کشاورزی شهرستان نائین با سایر شهرستان‌های اصفهان (1378-1382). فصل‌نامه جغرافیا و برنامه‌ریزی محیطی، 21 (3)، 21-44.
یاوری، کاظم؛ و مهرگان، نادر. (1382). جریان‌های سرمایه بخش کشاورزی در اقتصاد ایران. اقتصاد کشاورزی و توسعه، 11 (41-42)، 53-70.
Afzali Abarqoui, V., & Khani Qaryeh Gapi, N. (2011). The Causes and Effects of Capital Flight in Iran's Economy. Dunyaye Ekhtesad Newspaper, No. 2094. [in Persian].
Alipour, A. & Mousavi, H. (2017). Analysis of the Effects of the Growth of Non-Agricultural Sector on Labor Migration from the Agricultural Sector in Iran. Space Economy and Rural Development Quarterly, 7 (4), 189-210. [in Persian].
Asongu, S. A., & Nnanna, J. (2020). Governance and the Capital Flight Trap in Africa. Transnational Corporations Review, 12 (3), 276-292. doi:10.2139/ssrn.3601960
Badri, S., kazemi, N., Khodadadi, P. & Mohammadnejad, A. (2021), Rural Society, Vol 30, Issue 2-3.
Bobek, H. (2011). About the Concept of Exploitation Capitalism. In: Saiedi, Abbas, rural-urban relations and links in Iran, pp. 33-50. [in Persian].
Center for Rural Development and Underprivileged Areas of the Presidency. (2015). Statistics and Information Committee of Rural Areas, Tehran. [in Persian].
Coudel, E., Devautour, H., Soulard, C. T., Faure, G., & Hubert, H. (Eds.). (2013). Renewing Innovation Systems in Agriculture and Food. How to go towards more sustainability? Wageningen: Wageningen Academic Publisher.
Douglas, M. (1998). Strategies for Creating a Regional Network in order to Strengthen the Links between Village and City (a work order for policy research with reference to Indonesia). translated by Sosan Charejo. Journal of Social Sciences, 20, 95-86. [in Persian].
Douglass, mike (1998). A Regional Network Strategy for Reciprocal Rural urban linkage: An Agenda for Policy Research with Reference to Indonesia. Third World Planning Review, 20 (1). doi:10.3828/twpr.20.1.f2827602h503k5j6
Ehlers, E. (2001). City, Village and Nomads. translated by Abbas Saiedi, Tehran: Monshi Publications. [in Persian].
Encyclopedia of Urban and Rural Management. (2008). first edition, Tehran: Publications of the Cultural, Information and Press Institute. [in Persian].
Feddeke J. W. & liu, W. (2001). Modelling the Determinants of Capital Flows and Capital Flight: With an Application to South African Data from 1960 to 1995. Economic Modelling19, Department of Economics, ERSA, University of the Witwatersrand, Priate Bag 3, Wits 2050, South Africa, 419_444.
Gaisford, James D. (1995), International Capital Mobility, the Factor Content of Trade and Leontief Paradoxes. international economic journal, 39,175-178.
Gary.B and Roger. T, (2018), Interrogating the Meaning of a Rural Business Through a Rural Capitals Framework. Journal of Rural Studies,  60, Page 1-10. doi:10.1016/j.jrurstud.2018.02.002
Geran, J. M. (2000). Social Capital and Coping with Crisis: A Theoretical Framework Linking Social Networks and Sustainable Livelihoods, For Growth, Crisis and Resilience: Household Responses to Economic Change in Rural Southeast Asia: Evidence from Northern Thailand. Working, PP. 1.
Ghasemi Siyani, M., Afarakhte, H., Azizpour, F. & Riahi, V. (2018). An Analysis of the Spatial Integration of Rural Areas Based on a Network Analysis of Spatial Flows (Case Study: Bon Roud and Jolgeh District in Isfahan County). Geography and Urban Planning Quarterly, 21, 35-52. doi: 10.22111/gaij.2019.4694 [in Persian].
Huang, jikun and Scott Rozelle, Honglin WANG (2006), Fostering or Striping Rural China: Modernizing Agriculture and Rural to Urban Capital Flows. The Developing Economies, XLIV-1 (March 2006): 1–26. doi: 10.1111/j.1746-1049.2006.00001.x
Jalalian, H. (2016). The place of Village in Regional Planning, first edition, Tehran: Samt Publications. [in Persian].
Le, Q. V., & Zak, P. J. (2006). Political Risk and Capital Flight. Journal of International Money and Finance, 25(2), 308-329.
Lene Kjargaard, CH., Kristine, M. & Gunnar lindhaase, S., (2020). Capital Configurations and Trade-offs: How do Families with Children, Wishing to Move to a Rural Area. search for their new location in order to achieve desired forms of capital?. Journal of Rural Studies, 2020, Pages 148-158. doi:10.1016/j.jrurstud.2020.04.025
Management and Planning Organization of Kurdistan Province. (2018). Revision and Preparation of the Kurdistan Province's Development Document. [in Persian].
Mehrgan, N. & Yavari, K. (2006). Capital Flow from the Productive Sector to the Service Sector in Iran's Economy. Economic Research Quarterly, 2, 41-57. [in Persian].
Mohammadi, H., Falihi, N. & Bagherabadi, S. (2012). Analysis of Factors Affecting Employment in Agricultural Sector (Case Study of the Counties of Ilam, Kurdistan, Kermanshah and Hamedan). Journal of Economic Sciences, 7 (22), 115-135. doi: 20.1001.1.25383833.1392. [in Persian].
Papoli Yazdi, M., & Ebrahimi, M. A. (2008). Theories of Rural Development. Tehran: Samt Publications. [in Persian].
Papoli Yazdi, M., & Rajabi Sanajerdi, H. (2003). The Theories of City and Periphery. first edition, Tehran: Samt Publications. [in Persian].
Qadermarzi, H. (2011). Spatial Expansion of City and Change of Land Use in Surrounding Villages of Sanandaj City; During the period of 1976-2008. Urban Studies Quarterly, 1, 61-76. [in Persian].
Qadermarzi, H. (2014). Strategic Planning of Employment Development in Rural Areas of Javanrood County. Space Economy and Rural Development Quarterly, 4 (1), 109-130. [in Persian]. 
Rahman, A., & Westley, J. (2001), The Challenge of Ending Rural Poverty. Development Policy Review,19(4): 553-562. doi: 10.1111/1467-7679.00152
Rahnamaei, M. T., & Amirian, S. (2004). A Review of the Role of Government in the Expansion and Concentration of Urbanization in Iran, Geographical Society of Iran, 1, 19-40. [in Persian].
Rahnamaei, M. T. (2009). Theory of Government and Urbanization (fundamentals and general principles of the theory of city and urbanization). Journal of Geography and Regional Planning, 1, 143-165. [in Persian].
Ranjbar, M. (2008). Investigating the Phenomenon of Capital Flight from Iran (Islamic Republic period). Master's thesis, University of Tehran. Supervisor: Movassaghi, Ahmad. [in Persian].
Rezvani, M., Akbarian Rounizi, S., & Rajaei, Seyed A. (2008). The Role of Remittances and Investment in Rural Development (Ramshe district of Isfahan). Human Geographic Researches, 66, 1-16. [in Persian].
Rodriguez-Pose, A. & Hardy, D. (2015). Addressing Poverty and Inequality in Rural Economy from a Global Perspective. Elsevier, 61: 11-23. doi: 10.1016/j.apgeog.2015.02.005
Ruknuddin Eftekhari, A., Badri, S., & Sojasi Qeidari, H. (2013). Physical Theoretical Foundations of Rural Areas. second edition, Tehran: Publication of Islamic Revolution Housing Foundation. [in Persian].
Saiedi, A., & Azizpour, F. (2004). Regional Networks and Local Development with an Emphasis on Rural-Urban Links; Case example: milk production network in Litkoh district (Amol/Mazandaran). Geography Quarterly, 2 (2), 1-18. [in Persian].
Sawari Mambani, A., Khosravipour, B., Baradaran, M.& Yazdan Panah, M. (2016). The Application of Social Cognitive Theory in Explaining the Influencing Factors on Rural youth's Inclination to the Agricultural Sector (Baghmalek city). Iranian Journal of Agricultural Economics and Development Research, 48 (2), 287-298. [in Persian].
Shams, A., Gadimi, M., Mirakzade, A. & Houshmandan Moghadam Fard, Z. (2014). Reasons for Lack of Motivation of Rural Youth to Work in the Agricultural Sector (Boein Zahra). Iranian Journal of Agricultural Economics and Development Research, 46 (2), 859-869. [in Persian]. doi: 10.22059/ijaedr.2016.58038
Statistic Census of Iran. (2015). Settlements in Kurdistan Province. General population and housing census. [in Persian].
Statistical Center of Iran. (2015). General Population and Housing Census, Kurdistan Province. [in Persian].
Taherkhani, M. & Ruknuddin Eftekhari, A. (2004). Analysis of the Role of Mutual Relations between City and Village in Transformation of Rural Areas of Qazvin Province. Modarres Journal of Human Sciences, 35, 112-79. [in Persian].
Taleshi, M., Jomepour, M., & Ganjipour, M. (2014). The Role of State Investments in Capacity Building in Rural of the Country (Case Study: the Villages of Aran Bidgol). Regional Planning Quarterly, 5 (17), 59-74. [in Persian].
Trey, A. & Walt, F. (2016). Regional Development in Villages (analytical tools and public policies). translated by Shahram Raisi Dehkordi, first edition, Tehran: Pik Noor Publications, winter 2016. [in Persian].
Ventura, j. (2011), Bubbles and Capital Flows. journal of economic theory, Crei, Universitat Pompeu Fabra, Ramon Trias Fargas 25-27, 08005 Barcelona, Spain. And also Ventura, Jaume, Bubbles and Capital Flows (November 2002). NBER Working Paper No. w9304, Available at SSRN:
Warasi, H., Bay Mohammadi, H.. & Ghanbari, S. (2010). Comparison of the Economic Losses of Agricultural Drought in Naein County with other Counties in Isfahan Province (1999-2003). Journal of Geography and Environmental Planning, 21 (3), 21-44. [in Persian]. dor: 20.1001.1.20085362.1389.
Yavari, K., & Mehrgan, N. (2003). Capital Flows of the Agricultural Sector in Iran's Economy. Agricultural Economics and Development, 41 & 42, 69-53. [in Persian].