Right to the city approach and urban land use change A way to a sustainable and just city (Case Study: Tehran city)

Document Type : Research Paper


1 Passive Defense Department, Defense Research Institute, Higher National Defense University, Tehran, Iran

2 Department of Geography and Urban Planning, Faculty of Humanities, Payam Noor University, Yazd, Iran



Extended Abstract
Urban land-use changes are taking place in third-world metropolises with unsuccessful management and planning in favor of owners and developers, leading to instability and unfairness of the urban space. The existing studies show the spatial representation of the changes, causes, drivers, processes, and structures of these changes. Few studies with a prescriptive approach deal with a solution to make these changes fair and sustainable. This research aims to use the principles of the right to the city approach as a trans-structuralist approach to present a solution-oriented prescriptive model on the issue of urban land use changes centered on Tehran metropolis. In fact, after analyzing and explaining the causes and drivers of land use changes in third world cities (centered on Tehran metropolis), there is a need to use a prescriptive approach (the right to the city approach), a suitable solution for plans Provide an urban strategy in line with urban land use changes. The right to the city, as one of the rights of citizens, which is the result of their social relations and urban life, goes far beyond individual freedoms and access to city facilities. In this research, in order to provide a prescriptive model of urban land-use changes based on the right to city approach, the factors affecting urban land-use changes are calculated, and the prescription of the right to city approach for each of these factors is one of the principles of this statistical approach. Finally, a coherent theoretical prescriptive model has been presented, which theoretically prevents damage to the city and aligns with a sustainable and just city.
In this research based on qualitative strategy, the descriptive-analytical research method has been used to conduct the research. In order to present the effective factors of changes in urban land-use, the method of review and content analysis of resources has been applied. In order to collect the information needed for the theoretical basis of the research and in order to extract the effective factors on the land use changes as well as the prescriptions of the right to the city approach, documentary and library methods and the review of the latest scientific articles and relevant original books have been exerted.
Results and discussion
In realizing the ideal of the right to the city, the share of agents also changes. It has been analyzed, and according to the facts of the economic-political-spatial approach, the role of government and capital in urban changes is more prominent than other factors. However, from the view of the right to the city, the contribution of the social factor should be greater than the contribution of the political factor. According to the principles of the right to the city approach, the prescriptions of this approach have been extracted for each factor affecting urban land-use changes. The right to the city approach based on these prescriptions for land-use changes is in pursuit of a just and sustainable city. It claims that if in the plans and programs, Urban authorities should act according to these regulations regarding the factors affecting land use changes (including social, economic, political and physical), land-use changes will move towards fairness and sustainability. Fair and sustainable land-use changes lead to the generation of urban space. The increase in the added value of space resulting from the generation of space leads to the fair distribution of city costs and benefits among citizens, and this leads to the increase of the economic power of the public sector and, finally, the implementation of the right to the city for citizens. Increasing participation of citizens in decision-making makes an increase in the share of the lower classes of society in the space, leading to the socialization of the space. The socialization of the space also leads to the implementation of the right to the city for the citizens.
As a post-structuralist approach, the right to the city approach assigns a right to citizens that goes beyond equality in enjoying urban benefits and asserts the right to change the city at the hands of the citizens in line with their change. The purpose of this research is to present a prescriptive model based on the right to the city approach for urban land-use changes, which can provide a solution for urban land-use changes in urban plans and programs in a prescriptive manner, which other land-use changes not only should be done by the citizens, but its benefits should be for all the citizens living in the city. The benefits of urban changes should not only include the owners and developers, and finally, a fair and sustainable city will be created with the participation of the citizens and for the benefit of the citizens. In this regard, the prescriptions in charters and scientific texts related to the right to the city approach were calculated based on factors affecting urban land use changes and presented in the form of a prescription model. This research shows that the prescriptions from the right to the city approach for the factors and indicators affecting land-use changes prevent the commodification of space and lead to the creation of space. Finally, in a process, two main results will be achieved, which include the socialization of space and increasing the economic power of the public sector. The realization of these two results actually provides the conditions for creating a fair and sustainable city. The presented model based on the right to the city approach was validated with the fuzzy inference system, and the experts acknowledged that the presented model has an acceptable level in terms of the criteria of consistency with the approach, proportionality, effectiveness and efficiency, legitimacy and continuity, and the ability to measure.
There is no funding support.
Authors’ Contribution
Authors contributed equally to the conceptualization and writing of the article. All of the authors approved thecontent of the manuscript and agreed on all aspects of the work declaration of competing interest none.
Conflict of Interest
Authors declared no conflict of interest.
 We are grateful to all the scientific consultants of this paper.


Main Subjects

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