Analyzing the Dimensions of the Biophilic Citizen and Evaluating it in the Urban Society; An Introduction to Nature-Based Urban Planning (Case Study: Khaf city)

Document Type : Research Paper


1 School of Earth Sciences, Damghan University, Damghan, Iran

2 گروه جغرافیای انسانی، دانشکده جغرافیا، دانشگاه تهران، تهران، ایران.

3 گروه شهرسازی، دانشکده هنر و معماری، دانشگاه یزد، یزد، ایران.

4 گروه جغرافیای انسانی، دانشکده علوم جغرافیایی، دانشگاه خوارزمی، تهران، ایران.



Extended Abstract
With the occurrence of the industrial revolution, apart from any change in the world, the population experienced significant growth. This increase in population, and subsequent urban expansion caused numerous environmental, social and economic crises to the urban system, which resulted in a decrease in the quality of urban life and psycho-psychological consequences. In order to respond to these problems, several ideas were raised; one of them was the idea of the biophilic city. Biophilic City with emphasis the relationship with nature refers to its essential role in physical and mental health. In this city, the relationship between society and nature is very clear. A city can be considered biophilic where, in addition to communicating with nature, there are citizens who love nature and are diligent in preserving and developing it. Therefore, biophilic citizens can be considered a fundamental concept in the heart of the “Biophile City”. A citizen who performs biophilic affairs. It is clear that citizens have many distinctions based on some demographic variables such as age, education, income and so on. Hence,  identifying their differences and similarities is fundamental to a comprehensive strategy and planning. This study is important because Khaf, like most cities in Iran, follows a warm and dry climate. Along with this climatic background, the multiplicity of mines and industries has linked the lives of the citizens of this city with numerous physical and mental diseases. This is where the city as a place of gathering, commerce, and, most importantly, a human habitat, it requires clean air, clean water and a lively environment. Implementation of biophilic principles can create a healthy environment based on nature for residents.
The five general objectives pursued in this study­are:

Comparative Evaluation of Citizens' Biophilic Activities­and Attitudes­with the Standard Value of the Local Model of Biophilic City;
Assessing the Impact of­Urban Infrastructure on Citizens' Activities­and Attitudes­;
Evaluating the Correlation between ­Population Characteristics and ­Biophilic Activities;
Evaluation of the Correlation between Population Characteristics and­Biophilic Knowledge and Attitude;
Exploratory Analysis of Effective Dimensions on Identification of Biophilic Citizen.

The present study is a  descriptive-analytic study, and also, in terms of purpose, it is an applied study in which data collection is in  library-survey. The theoretical framework of the research was first developed. Then, by interviewing (the experts of the municipality and the environment department of Khaf)  and studying the documents, data and information in these organizations, the initial evaluation of urban infrastructure and other related items became biophilic city. Then, using the questionnaire method, the evaluation of the components affecting the explanation of the biophilic citizen model was measured. Considering the lack of familiarity of citizens with the concept of a biophilic city and the lack of explanation and interpretation of the concept of a biophilic citizen, a coefficient of error of 0.08 was applied in Cochran's formula. Therefore, the sample size was 150 and for better generalization, 30 questionnaires surplus to  the initial number of distributions. There were 180 questionnaires. Pearson statistical analysis and structural equation modeling in Amos Graphic software are the dominant evaluation methods in this study.
Results and discussion
Realizing this concept requires the cooperation of institutions and media with each other. On the other hand, it was found that demographic jaggies affect biophilic activities and attitudes and knowledge. The components of "biophilic infrastructure" and "biophilic institutions and organizations", such as "population characteristics", affect two components of  "biophilic activities" and "biophilic knowledge and attitude". In contrast, they are not affected by any components.  At the end of the study، it was also revealed that demographic characteristics such as age, gender, education, etc. There is a positive   and meaningful relationship with biophilic activities. The analysis of this relationship shows that the characteristics of the population as an independent entity have a great impact on "biophilic activities" and "biophilic attitudes and awareness", and citizens have different activities and knowledge and attitude in terms of age, education, marital status, gender and socioeconomic characteristics. In the right of time,  what increases or decreases the activities and the attitude and awareness of citizens towards biophilic activities is their demographic characteristics. Also, the more awareness and attitude of citizens towards the concept of biophilic citizens, their biophilic activities will increase.
Naturalism, life-saving and environmental protection are the necessities and fundamental concepts in the biophilic city. Biophilic is a city that considers nature first in its design, planning, and management. Khaf is involved in green space  development with problems such as water shortage and bad climate, which has caused the city's lack of green space. The issue of increasing age and education and effect on the increase of biophilic activities can be considered as one of the opportunities of Khaf. Because the city has faced an increase in the number of students and educated people in recent years, and by putting together people and indigenous citizens who have a long history of living in Khaf, effective measures can be taken to realize the biophilic city. The socioeconomic situation of individuals also has a direct impact on the presence of green spaces. This concept can have various reasons, including that this group of citizens have more time for rest and recreation, and generally fewer worries create more opportunities for them to spend in green spaces. Paying attention to the concept of a biophilic city can be one of the policies of the development of Khaf. The city has faced the phenomenon of migration in recent years. Perhaps the climate, along with economic issues, is one of the most important reasons. The crowd knew the exit. In this way, the biophilic city strategy in the development of Khaf can improve the climate and prevent the migration of citizens، especially educated people, who are the capital needed for the city for development.
In order to realize the concept of biophilic citizen in Khaf, the following measures are proposed:

Developing a biophilic citizen strategic plan for Khaf city;
Adoption of laws supporting the development of the intellectual and physical structures of the city of Khaf and the preparation of guidelines for  the development of the intellectual and physical structures of the biophilic city;
Using the capacity of media to ­educate and expand the concept of a biophilic citizen;
Providing an executive plan to preserve and expand urban green spaces in accordance with water and climate constraints with a biophilic approach;­
Holding educational workshops for students to raise awareness about the duties of biophilic citizens.

There is no funding support.
Authors’ Contribution
Authors contributed equally to the conceptualization and writing of the article. All of the authors approved thecontent of the manuscript and agreed on all aspects of the work declaration of competing interest none.
Conflict of Interest
Authors declared no conflict of interest.
 We are grateful to all the scientific consultants of this pape.


Main Subjects

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