Evaluation of spatial distribution of social capital in urban neighborhoods (Case study of Bushehr city)

Document Type : Research Paper


1 Department of Geography Education, Farhangian University, Tehran, Iran.

2 Research Department of Agricultural Education and Extension Organization of Bushehr Province, Bushehr, Iran.

3 Department of Geography, Payam Noor University, Tehran, Iran.



Extended Abstract
In line with city and population studies as well as population planning of people in cities, which has a long history, the city has been the main focus of human gathering, and for years, it has taken first place among human settlements in attracting the population, which has been able to make many changes. In order to create according to the attraction of the population in the cities, these developments can manifest themselves in the form of physical, social, economic, and managerial developments. These developments lead the city towards the current conditions and give the city a different identity from the settlements. Based on this, social issues in the city are first in the ranking of urban studies because this is the main way of shaping all issues. In this regard, if the urban management group pays special attention to social relations from the beginning of planning in the city, maybe in the future, they will see fewer challenges, especially in urban worn-out textures. It will lead the city to social prosperity and the level of social participation, which will greatly expand among the localities so that the city can be considered a logical, healthy, and effective focal point by maintaining social identity for residents. With this assumption, social studies in line with successful urban management are essential and successful results of urban planning at the local level. It tries to show the strengthening of relations in the city from a social point of view and guide the city management towards sustainable urban control. However, the urban management complex may face different challenges in this regard because urban neighborhoods are one of the micro and concrete centers for forming cultural identities and social affiliations and strengthening neighborhood values and norms in the form of a sense of social belonging and neighborhood relations. Therefore, in the structure of urban neighborhoods, the role of social capital is as a set of norms, informal values, customary laws, and moral obligations that interact with each other and are always discussed and examined by researchers in urban studies and cause identification of people in groups, and facilitate social relations in cities. Based on this, due to the population density and various ethnic migrations in the neighborhoods of Bushehr, it has become essential that the level of trust of the residents of that area is less towards each other, and this issue has caused major concerns. In this regard, the present research has been scrutinized to evaluate social capital. It has shown that social capital directly affects the institutionalization of urban management and development. With this assumption, the present research has been aimed at answering whether the spatial distribution of social capital in different neighborhoods of Bushehr is distributed similarly or not..
Since the purpose and application will be different depending on the type of research subject, the present research is practical in terms of purpose and descriptive survey in terms of method. Since articles, books, and other written sources were used in the present research and researchers were present at the research site and collected their data in this field, this research was of library and field type. The research's statistical population includes all Bushehr citizens, whose number is unlimited. The statistical sample was based on the well-known Cochran formula; 384 people were obtained. In order to obtain better information, the researcher collected 403 questionnaires.
Results and discussion
In the current research, which is a social issue, according to the statistical analysis, different results have been created; therefore, in order to obtain the scientific results of the research, Cronbach's alpha has been used first to check the reliability of the research variables, and then to check the dimensions of social capital in Kruskal-Wallis test has been exerted in different areas of Bushehr city. Also, data analysis has shown that the significance of topics such as social trust in this test (0.223), social participation (0.001), social cohesion (0.029), local institutions (0.046), social security (0.367), responsibility (0.048), normative orientation (0.418), satisfaction (0.032) and social interaction (0.041). In the continuation of the research findings, the results of the investigations have shown no significant difference in terms of social trust, social security, or normativity in different areas of Bushehr. However, there is a significant difference in terms of social participation, social cohesion, local institutions, social responsibility, satisfaction, and social interaction. Moreover, finally, according to the results of the research, it has been suggested to city officials that one of the components that city managers in Bushehr can trust more is the discussion of trust in local social institutions such as Basij, the mosque's board of trustees, etc. City managers can think about planning and strengthening their multiples among the urban neighborhoods of Bushehr.
City managers in Bushehr should strengthen the activities of mosques and mobilize neighborhoods in their agenda to increase people's trust in these groups, make citizens able to go to mosques with peace of mind and use the presence of elders in order to solve problems. In this regard, one of the strategies that Bushehr city managers and officials can effectively demonstrate is how to establish positive and constructive communication between citizens, the Islamic Council, and the neighborhood council. In such a way, people believe they can refer to their neighborhood council to resolve neighborhood issues with peace of mind..
There is no funding support.
Authors’ Contribution
Authors contributed equally to the conceptualization and writing of the article. All of the authors approved thecontent of the manuscript and agreed on all aspects of the work declaration of competing interest none.
Conflict of Interest
Authors declared no conflict of interest.
 We are grateful to all the scientific consultants of this paper.


Main Subjects

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