Applying a qualitative Meta-Synthesis approach to develop of the Entrepreneurial opportunity window model in the tourism supply chain

Document Type : Research Paper


1 Department of management, PayameNoorUniversity (PNU),Tehran,Iran

2 scientific memember of the Agriculture and Natural Resources Research and Education Center, Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization,Ilam, Iran



Extended Abstract


The tourism supply chain can be considered as a whole, including suppliers, manufacturers, and tourism service providers. Customer needs are constantly changing, and tourism products' life cycles are also getting shorter. Thus, tourism supply chain management must be able to respond to the diverse needs of the market. The point of view of tourism supply chain management is based on the fact that instead of competition between companies, competition should be formed between supply chains. The development of entrepreneurial tourism can be a new source of income for the host community, and by diversifying the economy, dependence on a single product can be reduced. Tourism is a dynamic industry that requires entrepreneurs to explore new development opportunities and creatively manage existing development. Entrepreneurial opportunities exist throughout the tourism chain (supply, production, and distribution), and entrepreneurs need to explore these opportunities. This particular period of time is called the window of opportunity. Therefore, one should know the signs of entrepreneurship opportunities in the tourism supply chain (windows of opportunity) to take advantage of the opportunities in the tourism supply chain to create entrepreneurship.


In the present research, the qualitative method of meta-synthesis has been used. The meta-combination method is included in meta-study studies. Meta-study is one of the methods used to review, combine, and distinguish previous studies. Meta-study includes the set of meta-analysis, meta-synthesis, and meta-methodology. Meta-synthesis is research that evaluates other research. Therefore, it is referred to as an evaluation of evaluations. So, meta-synthesis is a form of research about other research. Meta-synthesis can be considered as a systematic study and review of past research. In the current research, the sampling was of the theoretical saturation type and based on the seven-stage method of " Sandelowski & Barroso," based on this, 50 studies were selected and finalized for the meta-combination stages. This research is applied in terms of purpose and in terms of data collection; it is a documentary-metabolic and non-experimental (descriptive) type of research.

Results and discussion

Understanding and organizing entrepreneurial opportunities is one of the important issues of the entrepreneurial supply chain. The supply chain of the tourism industry is considered a good source for entrepreneurship due to the involvement of various companies and organizations in joint activities. Therefore, how to recognize opportunities in the supply chain of the tourism industry in order to take advantage of them should be considered. As mentioned earlier, over time, windows of opportunity open in different parts of the supply chain (supply, production, and supply) and competing companies steal the lead by quickly taking advantage of opportunities and creating entrepreneurship. Leading companies become This research has tried to express the signs of open windows of opportunity in the tourism supply chain in the form of environmental changes. The researcher has investigated, compiled, combined, and interpreted the dimensions and indicators of the entrepreneurial window of opportunity with a comprehensive and holistic view. Finally, the meta-synthesis results show that windows of opportunity in the tourism supply chain include eight main categories, including social and cultural changes, industry and market changes, technological changes, political and legal changes, new knowledge, demographic changes, market imperfections, and economic changes, and 30 subcomponents. Each component can be like a window of opportunity along the tourism supply chain and pave the way for entrepreneurs to take advantage of opportunities.


As discussed, each component obtained from the hybrid method can be like a window of opportunity along the tourism supply chain and open the way for entrepreneurs to use the opportunities. In the field of technological changes, identifying new production technologies and equipment in the production sector of the tourism supply chain can be an opportunity to produce and present new products. Using new software and hardware, new production methods, and e-commerce can open the way for entrepreneurs to take advantage of opportunities in different parts of the tourism supply chain and create entrepreneurial opportunities in the supply chain. The diversity of the workforce and social networks also provide entrepreneurial opportunities. Factors such as population increase or decrease and the quantity and quality of the needs of different age groups (women and men, young population, elderly, children) can create opportunities for entrepreneurship in the production sector of the tourism supply chain and provide demand for new and diverse products. Also, the population of the target market urban needs provide windows of opportunity for entrepreneurs in the tourism chain. In discussing the disadvantages of the market, using renewable resources and new methods to reduce waste in the supply and production sector of the tourism supply chain can provide opportunities to produce products at a lower cost. Knowing the target markets and using new marketing methods can sell more products through advertising. The conditions for creating entrepreneurship along the tourism supply chain can be provided by diversifying the products and increasing the quantity and quality of production. Changes in tax rates, free trade, and reduction of customs tariffs in the government policy sector can open new windows of opportunity in the tourism supply chain. Individuals and organizations in the field of economic development can change the type of services and products by knowing inflationary expectations and supplementary products and goods with elastic income, reducing or increasing people's purchasing power, increasing society's income, and increasing or decreasing inflation. It can create opportunities to produce alternative goods reasonably priced and lead to entrepreneurship in the tourism supply chain. In market and industry changes, knowing alternative products can help reach new markets and form new businesses. In the field of new knowledge, knowing the knowledge related to the market and industry can open the way for entrepreneurs to know new opportunities.

Keywords: Window of Opportunity, Entrepreneurship, Meta-Synthesis, Tourism, Tourism Supply Chain.


Main Subjects

Articles in Press, Accepted Manuscript
Available Online from 05 November 2023
  • Receive Date: 23 July 2023
  • Revise Date: 05 November 2023
  • Accept Date: 05 November 2023