Conceptual explanation and validity evaluation of reconstruction indicators in rural areas

Document Type : Extracted from the dissertation


1 PhD student of Geography and Rural Planning, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran

2 Assistant Professor, Department of Geography, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran

3 Professor of Geography Department, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran




Today, the term rural reconstruction has become one of the most important topics of rural studies with the speed and continuity of changes in rural areas. Rural reconstruction means spatial-spatial reproduction, revival or physical, cultural, social, strategic changes in villages. Reconstruction can be seen as the result of many causes and micro-macro factors such as development plans, ruling policies, migration flows, development of technologies and communications, environmental changes, globalization, tourism development over time, which brings changes in spatial structure and functions. In this regard, several studies have been carried out in the field of reconstruction. In many of these studies, reconstruction has been considered in the sense of structural changes, restoration, regeneration, and revitalization from an economic perspective, which is due to the novelty of the topic and the complex process of reconstruction. The reconstruction of rural areas includes different dimensions, therefore, in this research, the attempt to develop a theory that can include all dimensions of reconstruction has rarely been made. It should be noted that the reconstruction deals with the overview of the structural and functional changes of the village and its issues, so the positive feature of this perspective is avoiding one-dimensional and one-sided thinking. According to this feature, it is possible to examine various elements in this whole unit, which have been less paid attention to in the reviewed studies. The main goal in this study is to provide systematic and systematic indicators to operationalize various aspects of reconstruction according to the conditions of rural areas and their changes over time so that researchers, practitioners and planners of rural issues can use these indicators in their studies. Take advantage Therefore, the key and central question of this article is: What are the important and effective indicators in the reconstruction of rural areas? And according to the conditions of rural areas of Iran, are these indicators valid according to academic experts and executive experts?


In the current research, in order to obtain important indicators in the field of reconstruction, firstly due to the lack of official statistics regarding the number of the sample community of experts, there were people who had expertise in the field of geography, rural planning, and also people who conducted research on the subject or Part of it was done and access to them was possible, they were randomly selected to complete the questionnaire. In total, a list of 50 people was prepared and the questionnaire was given to all of them and finally 40 people answered the questionnaires. In order to weight the indices and criteria extracted regarding reconstruction, the respondents were asked to rate each of the criteria on a scale of 1-5, with 1 being the least important and 5 being the most important. After entering the data, the analyses were performed at several levels. At first, a sample T-Tech test was used to evaluate the average opinions of faculty members and experts And in order to validate and reach the consensus of the experts, in addition to the mean statistics, the Vicor technique was used, and the Mann-Whitney test was also used to compare the views of two groups of academic staff members and experts. In this way, 12 out of 77 indicators are in poor condition, in other words, there is no consensus among experts regarding these 12 indicators. Also, in order to compare the opinions of two groups of academic staff members and experts regarding the reconstruction indices of the T-test, two independent samples were taken at the level of dimensions and indices. Finally, the indicators were placed in the Vicor model for ranking. Thus, in the first step, the answers were entered into the Excel software and its matrix was formed. Then, in the second step, the numbers were calculated. Finally, the weight of 77 criteria was obtained based on Vicor's model and their ranking was done.

Results and discussion

To check that the indicators used in each sector are suitable for use in rural planning and in practice they can be used in the process of planning and evaluating rural development projects, the coefficient of variation was used. Since the average of the answers may cause wrong conclusions in the index evaluation process due to the existence of high variance among the answers, The Mann-Whitney test on the indicators to determine the consensus status of the experts showed that among the 77 indicators, there is no consensus regarding 12 indicators, and these indicators are unsuitable or less important for the reconstruction of rural areas than other indicators. have been diagnosed. The results of the evaluation of the average dimensions of rural reconstruction from the respondents' point of view using the t-test of a sample with a median value of 3 to evaluate the effectiveness of the indicators showed that the value of the T statistic in all indicators is higher than the average value (3) and the significance level of all the dimensions of the variables i.e. Reconstruction has a significance level of less than 5 percent, which indicates their significant effect in measuring and evaluating the variable objective. Comparing the opinions of two groups of academic staff members and experts on the level of reconstruction dimensions shows that the structure of reconstruction is different between the two groups of academic staff members and experts.


In view of the fact that in Iran still not much attention has been paid to the topic of reconstruction and the number of scientific researches in this field is very small, also since this issue has not been taken into account in development programs, especially the development of rural areas of Iran, therefore determining and introducing Indicators affecting the reconstruction of rural areas can pave the way for future development plans, and executive bodies and universities can plan the movement towards reconstruction in different dimensions using the introduced indicators, as well as those analyzed by experts.


Main Subjects

Articles in Press, Accepted Manuscript
Available Online from 11 November 2023
  • Receive Date: 13 January 2023
  • Revise Date: 11 November 2023
  • Accept Date: 11 November 2023