Comparative analysis of the use of renewable energies in the development of rural sustainability in Iran, Germany, Poland, Pakistan and Thailand

Document Type : Extracted from the dissertation


1 Department of Human Geography, Faculty of Geography, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran.

2 University of Tehran - Faculty of Geography - Department of Human Geography



Extended Abstract
Rural development is one of the goals of countries and governments, especially developing countries, because despite having natural and agricultural resources, villages face many problems and issues such as poverty, unemployment, weak infrastructures. economic suitability, the lack of endogenous service activities, the low productivity rate in the agricultural sector of rural production and the lack of sustainable energy on the one hand and the destruction of natural resources on the other hand, which have made rural development somewhat impossible (Akbari) et al., 2016: 2). Attitude towards sustainable environmental development since the 1970s with international meetings and discussions. These issues presented the importance of paying attention to the sustainable development of rural areas and the need for renewable energy approaches and providing realistic strategies with spatial-spatial dimensions.
This research is a comparative research, in terms of purpose, development and in terms of qualitative nature. In terms of methodology, it is a type of content analysis. Considering that the final goal of this research is to compare the structure of renewable energy exploitation, the studied examples with Iran in identifying weaknesses and strengths, a fundamental look at the eploitation of renewable energy. It is acceptable and in the end it is to provide suggestions in order to strengthen this structure, therefore, in order to achieve these goals, the structure of renewable energy utilization in rural areas of Iran has been compared with four countries: Germany, Poland, Pakistan, and Thailand. The comparative approach is carried out in the analysis and monitoring of the functional comparison of the use of renewable energies in the rural areas of the countries and their similarities and differences are presented. So, using comparative and qualitative methods, the situation of rural areas in Iran was analyzed with other countries and its strengths and weaknesses were determined. Also, by identifying the difference in the indicators used, it is possible to improve the performance of renewable energies. Therefore, in the first step, the role of participation of local institutions in the structure of exploitation of renewable energies in Iran, Germany, Poland, Pakistan and Thailand has been discussed. In the second step; The comparative comparison of the government's role in the planning structure was mentioned and then the place of credit allocation in the use of renewable energy at the national, regional and local (rural) levels was discussed. Basically, it can be stated that this research is an applied research and the success and efficiency of comparative research in the field of renewable energy exploitation requires the adoption of a generalist approach in qualitative research.
Results and discussion
Examining the experiences of Germany, Poland, Pakistan and Thailand in the field of using renewable energy at different levels of a country showed that the success of the programs in Germany and Poland is the result of the cooperation of the European Union with these countries and the transfer of policies National decision-making has been realized at the local level. Therefore, in these countries, the government system has pursued a guiding role by creating convergence and partnership between the planning department, and by creating partnerships, they have performed self-welding and giving authority to each of the responsible provinces as a basic strategy. In the country of Thailand, the role of the government as a strategic institution performs its duties in the country's plans, and the basic principle of the plans is in the opinion of the prime minister and lower levels. In this country, the major departments of planning and decision-making regarding the development of the use of renewable energy have made large investments in rural areas with multi-party cooperation in regional and local programs.
While the macro-planning structure of Iran and Pakistan practically does not provide the possibility of handing over authority. The power has been transferred from the center of the provincial governments to the level below it. It seems that in these countries, the government seeks to maintain a centralized structure in decision-making, especially large-scale energy and renewable energy programs. Although in these countries in the last decade, the participation of all stakeholders has led to the exploitation of renewable energies. With the comparison between the countries, it can be stated that the policies, policies and plans for the use of renewable energy in Iran have not been effective and currently the policy making of the use of renewable energy is nascent. And it is new.
On the other hand, the country's planning system is facing weaknesses at the national level - from the point of view of centralized structure and sectoral plans. At the regional level with weaknesses such as the lack of independence and legal and political authority in the exploitation of renewable energy and at the local level with weaknesses such as not giving the right of legal authority to the local representative and weak public participation in The topics of using renewable energy are facing.
The results of the research showed that the success of the countries of Germany, Poland, Pakistan and Thailand was through interactive programs and the participation of stakeholders and giving them authority at the national, regional and local levels. However, at the national and regional level, Iran faces the view of a centralized structure and a partial approach to programs, the lack of independence and politicization of managers, and at the local level, the lack of legal powers to local institutions and the lack of interactive participation in the field of interest. The removal of renewable energies is facing. One of the applications of this research is to know the strengths and weaknesses of the studied countries in the field of renewable energy exploitation and compare it with Iran and lay the groundwork for the exploitation of renewable energy in rural areas. The country pointed out.. This point of view helps to provide the ground for encouraging popular and local institutions at various levels in rural areas.
There is no funding support.
Authors’ Contribution
Authors contributed equally to the conceptualization and writing of the article. All of the authors approved thecontent of the manuscript and agreed on all aspects of the work declaration of competing interest none.
Conflict of Interest
Authors declared no conflict of interest.
 We are grateful to all the scientific consultants of this paper.


Main Subjects

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