The rhythm of consumption space in the tourism of the Urban Peripheral mountains (Gavazang and Amand Zanjan mountains)

Document Type : Research Paper


Department of Geography Education, Farhangian University, Tehran, Iran




According to the definition of the World Tourism Organization, mountain tourism is a type of tourism activity in a specific and limited geographical space such as hills or mountains with distinctive features and characteristics of a landscape, topography, climate, biodiversity (plants and animals), and a specific local community. This tourism includes a wide range of activities related to human leisure, which need to be done in open spaces and in order to communicate with nature. This type of tourism is the backbone of natural and cultural heritage, creating a special tourist experience. The nearby mountains or city suburbs are always popular with citizens due to their easy access, and they spend part of their free time in various dimensions such as recreation, physical and mental health, sports, outdoor dining, etc. Mountains close to large and medium cities have always been of great interest in terms of tourism due to the large presence of citizens and have involved urban management; studying the rhythm of tourism in the Urban Peripheral mountains, which explains the horizontal complexity of the use of space by understanding the type and pattern of mountain space consumption by users (tourist citizens) and aims to plan the geographical management of mountain tourism in various environmental, economic and cultural dimensions. This research has done a comparative study of the rhythm of two mountain complexes, Kavazang and Amand, located in the north of Zanjan city, and has explained the horizontal complexity of space consumption. The background of the temporal and spatial cycle is related to various factors such as the type of use and presence of the tourist, time and climate, socio-occupational and economic class and class, mental inclination and tendencies, reasons and aspects, subjective and objective loyalty of the tourist, attitude environmental factors of tourists and many other factors are determined and investigated.


The current research is a mixed qualitative-quantitative study with comparative construction based on a descriptive-analytical method, with an exploratory nature and rhythm analysis method. The statistical population studied was urban tourists in the mountains studied. The research variables are four indicators of the type of tourism (family, group, or individual), time cycle, available services, and the tourist's willingness, which includes 29 items.

Results and discussion

The coefficient of sustainability and repeatability of mountain tourism is higher in the group tourism community. It is estimated that the path coefficient (R2) of the studied rhythms is above 90% of the coverage level of the variables. The rhythm of tourism in the morning and evening scales of the summer and winter patterns in the studied mountains is relatively compatible with the time conditions of sunrise and sunset in different months of the year. The continuity and sustainability of non-family group tourists in all months of the year, especially the cold months of the studied mountains, is above 50%. With the change of seasons, the temporary movement of tourists from one mountain to another is formed, and the change of weather seasons leads to the movement of group tourists (especially non-family group tourists). The association and mental memory of the tourist community from the studied mountains are different but similar. Tourists disagree with the development of facilities and welfare services in the mountains, which have pristine natural scenery, and the preservation of natural attractions with minimal human intervention. Sports and health are the main reasons for non-family group tourists to use mountain space, and recreation and entertainment are the most important reasons for using mountain space from the perspective of family and casual tourists. The method of using space for non-family and individual group tourists is mainly on foot, respecting the health of the mountain environment. For non-family groups and occasional tourists, it is a combination of riding (vehicle) and walking, with the possibility of developing infrastructure services. Non-human and natural elements such as rivers, springs, trees, plants, medicinal vehicles, snow, snow tubing, natural paths, and fresh air are the most interesting mental associations of Amand mountain tourists, and natural elements of slopes, stones, along with manufactured elements such as amusement parks, graves, amusement park, restaurant, asphalt road, city view, tea house, and dam are the most important mental associations of Gavzang Mountain. Despite the proximity of the Gavazang and Amand mountains, the tourism coordinates of the mentioned mountains are different due to manufactured and natural attractions, and the type of tourism and the dominant tourism community are also different.


Mountain tourism is one of the types of tourism based on the structure of health, sports, recreation, and travel, and it has a rhythmic pattern. This type of tourism has a horizontal rhythm system due to its dominant dependence on the daily time structure, in which different tourism communities have their structural rhythm. This is important in the Urban Peripheral mountains due to the type of reception of tourists within the city and the local-regional performance; it provides different interpretation results. The results of this research on the tourism of two peripheral mountains to Zanjan city showed that mountain tourism has a stable rhythm and mountain tourists gradually develop a sense of spatial belonging to the mountains due to the weather conditions and the way of using its space (walking, climbing and breathing, etc.) and find a positive mental association of the touristic space.


The results of this research showed that a positive mental association with the mountain atmosphere increases the satisfaction of tourists. They leave the mountain environment with a positive mental memory and are interested in durability and repeatability (re-attendance). The results show that mountains with more natural scenery and less human interference have a greater sense of spatial belonging and have a more stable continuity of rhythm. The results of this study showed that natural virgin mountains with minimal human intervention have more mental attractions and preserving their natural environment leads to the association of positive memories, permanence, and more loyalty. This research suggests that tourism services, especially hospitality infrastructure services, should be established at a certain distance from the natural face of the mountain and not inside the natural texture of the mountain.


Main Subjects

Articles in Press, Accepted Manuscript
Available Online from 14 April 2024
  • Receive Date: 06 December 2023
  • Revise Date: 13 April 2024
  • Accept Date: 14 April 2024