Explaining the economic consequences of population movements (immigration and immigration) in the rural settlements of Langrod County

Document Type : Research Paper


1 Ph.D. student of Geography and Rural Planning, Rasht Branch, Islamic Azad University, Rasht, Iran

2 Professor of Geography Department, Rasht Branch, Islamic Azad University, Rasht, Iran

3 Assistant Professor of Geography Department, Rasht Branch, Islamic Azad University, Rasht, Iran




The preliminary investigation of the situation of rural migration in Gilan province and its cities shows that factors such as the lack of income of the villagers, the widespread unemployment of the surplus force in the agricultural sector, the lack of proper development of service infrastructure in the villages and the existence of employment and income The relatively better ratio in the cities of the province has fueled the intensity of rural-urban migration in recent years, since this migration is mostly youth-driven, the departure of young people from the countryside causes a decrease in population growth, an increase in the ratio of old age and a decrease in agricultural production. Due to the aging of the workforce in the villages, And after that, the positive economic effects, factors such as rural attractions (clean air, absence of urban problems and urban repulsion, high cost of land and housing, mental and emotional pressures, air pollution and the development of the transportation network) cause spatial mobility. In the form of reverse migration (city-rural), this wave of spatial movements of the population, while reducing the problems of the cities of the province, including Langrod, has led to the development and prosperity of the villages of the city through the development of opportunities. It leads to a job, increased investment, etc.

Therefore, knowing the economic effects of population movements (migration) of the rural settlements of Langrod city can have a suitable leverage in the decision-making and planning of the managers of Langrod city and villages. Considering the occurrence and intensity of spatial migration (immigrant sending and migration acceptance) in the villages of Langrod during the last few decades, and its strength, in this research, an attempt will be made to investigate and explain the economic consequences of the movements with a combination of quantitative and qualitative methods. Population of rural settlements in Langrod city.


According to the purpose, the research method is applied, and according to the nature, it is qualitative and quantitative. According to the method and manner of execution; It is a survey type and the method of execution is exploratory, descriptive-analytical. In order to analyze the data, the grounded theory method and SPSS and GIS software will be used. In the quantitative part of the research, the research tool is a questionnaire. In the qualitative part of the research, the research tool is the interview. According to this; Analysis of information in line with the answer to the research question: What are the economic consequences of population movements (immigration and immigration) in the rural settlements of Langrood city? And which one has the most importance? At first, the grounded theory model will be used, and then each of the economic consequences will be reflected in the form of a questionnaire and distributed among the sample population. The information obtained in the second part of the research will be analyzed using SPSS software.

Results and discussion

The results showed 5 economic consequences of population movements (immigration), which include: hidden unemployment among immigrants, lack of motivation in employment in agriculture and animal husbandry activities in villages, reducing the gap between urban and rural society in the production of food products and food style, obtaining a better economic position for the immigrants and their families in the village, the capitalization of land and housing in the villages, it was identified that the lack of motivation to work in agriculture and animal husbandry activities in the villages is the most important. Is. In the following, there are 5 economic consequences of accepting immigrants, including: negative consequences: neoliberalization and rent-seeking in the villages; And the positive consequences: identity in rural lands, prosperity of employment in villages, increase in productivity in the village and earning money and capital in the villages were identified, among which neoliberalization and rent playing in the villages are the most important.


According to the obtained results, rural youth go to bigger cities in order to achieve a desirable future and get a better job, but this is when they come to big cities and realize that they are not able to achieve their dreams of migration. Who does not see any guarantee for his future either in the village or in the city with his service jobs, middlemanship, peddling and finally informal employment? Of course, this issue is less common for educated young people in rural areas, because due to their higher education and sometimes post-graduate education, their dignity and honor in employment in urban organizations, offices and institutions is higher. Based on this, despite the informal employment among the majority of young immigrants, due to the existence of sufficient facilities and services in the field of (recreation, government services (water, electricity, gas and telephone, internet), health and health, physical and physical, etc. ...), the presence of colorful shops such as food, clothes, household appliances, etc., next to each other, the city is still very attractive for them. In fact, they prefer informal employment with medium income over employment in the traditional part of the village (agriculture and animal husbandry). On the other hand, with the arrival of young immigrants to the city, the labor force in the village has weakened and we always see stagnation in agriculture, animal husbandry, handicrafts, etc. in the villages of Langrod. At the same time, with the arrival of immigrants to the villages of Langrod, because they migrated to big cities, they transfer new ideas to others and the conservative rural society, new and innovative methods of agriculture, animal husbandry, ideas In order to create small businesses, they provide new jobs in the villages. On the other hand, with the arrival of capitalists in the villages, apart from the negative burden (transformation of land into capital, land grabbing, changes in land use), there is a positive burden including (development of tourism by creating second homes and renting them to tourists) causes the development of eco-tourism residences. According to the obtained results, the most important reason for the migration of young people from villages to cities is lack of jobs and unemployment in villages.


Main Subjects

Articles in Press, Accepted Manuscript
Available Online from 28 April 2024
  • Receive Date: 02 November 2023
  • Revise Date: 25 April 2024
  • Accept Date: 28 April 2024