تحلیل سیاست‌های آمایش سرزمینی ایران و ترکیه در مناطق مرزی همجوار

نویسندگان

1 دانشیار گروه جغرافیای انسانی، دانشکده جغرافیا، دانشگاه تهران

2 دانشجوی دوره دکترای جغرافیای سیاسی، دانشگاه تهران

چکیده

سازماندهی سیاسی فضا یا سیاست‌های آمایش سرزمینی، از موضوعات مطرح در حوزة مطالعات جغرافیای سیاسی به‌شمار می‌آید. نمود عینی سیاست‌های آمایش سرزمینیِ حکومت‌های مرکزی را در مناطق مرزی با اعمال راهبردهای هدفمند، به‌منظور هدایت متوازن دو الگوی امنیت و توسعه، می‌توان مشاهده کرد. در نوشتار حاضر، آزمون فرضیة وجود رابطه بین سیاست‌های آمایش سرزمینی ایران و ترکیه در مناطق مرزی همجوار، با شرایط و مناسبات حاکم بر سیاست داخلی و خارجی هر یک از این دو کشور، از طریق تحلیل یافته‌های نویسندگان و داده‌های آماری قابل استناد دو کشور، موردنظر بوده است. تحلیل یافته‌ها ما را بدین نتیجه رهنمون ساخت که در بیشتر مواقع، تنظیم سیاست‌گذاری‌های مناطق مرزی بدون توجه به مقتضیّات داخلی و با توجه به شرایط کشور مقابل، پیگیری و اجرا شده است. این امر، تداعی‌گر حاکمیت الگوی ایدئولوژی‌محور بر الگوی عدالت‌محور در اجرای سیاست‌های آمایشی دو کشور در مناطق مرزی همجوار بوده است؛ که نتایج چندان امیدوارکننده‌ای را برای بهبود شرایط حاکم در مناطق مرزی، آشکار نمی‌سازد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

An Analysis on Land Use Policies by the Governments of Iran and Turkey in Neighbor Border Regions

نویسندگان [English]

  • Z Pishgahi Fard 1
  • N Soltani Khalifani 2
چکیده [English]

Extended Abstract
Only policy of more countries with the unstable security conditions in response to threats from border regions such as severe poverty and deprivation in the border regions, breach of social and discrimination of ethnic- culture and insecurity through illegal immigrants is intensified security mechanisms and perform the land use policies oriented ideology and security. In this regard, experience of several decades from organizing political space in Iran on the central government attitude to development in the peripheral areas has been suggested that management of political concerns in central government is dominant policy (Andalib, 2001: 95). However, the result from such an approach isn’t so successful and heavy costs has imposed on the central government and local communities. The adjustment in this approach and orientation with schematization to the economic development and raise living standards in local communities is factor that test yet.
In this article was the effort that using analysis of the findings by researchers and available statistical data for border areas in two neighboring countries, land use policies of Iran and Turkey evaluate in neighbor border regions to find answers to this question that land use policies in these two countries conforms with Which the internal and external long-term strategy? Writers is argument that although the land use policies of Iran and Turkey done within the territorial space each of the two countries however, the influential factors on the formation of land use policies programs has dimensions of the broader from internal considerations and in many cases, preparatory two countries to land use policies isn’t in line interests of local communities and has rooted more in international considerations such as effort`s Turkey for avoid the formation of territorial integrity in within Kurds, achieve ideal cosmopolitan Turks using back to historical and ethnic roots. But Iran also is following maintain demographic makeup in northwest border areas with Turkey.
In fact, land use strategies of Iran and Turkey in neighbor border regions is sometimes close and sometimes far, however is almost the same result. Although in the fact, there isn’t doubt that these two countries have set their border policy to the conditions of neighboring country, the results doesn’t very much help to release the two countries on issues border areas. The misuse of ethnic groups in border areas against the neighboring country (Olson, 1998: 41), oriented ideology and security in economic, social and cultural policy in study areas (Hafeznia and Ahmadi, 2005: 5) and finally, conditions in Iraq north (Hostrup, 2004: 106-7) is normally strategy the Iran and Turkey in border regions.
Being obvious of the deprivation and backwardness of border regions in many development indicators in compared with total average (Statistical Yearbook of Turkey, 1998: 4 & Statistical Yearbook of Iran, 2006), strengthen the growing of thinking “Alienation” among the residents in these areas (Ahmadi, 2006: 215), formation of incorrect economic relations such as smuggling of goods and alcohol, decreased acceptance of national identity in these areas, economic and human costs for security in these areas, disrupt the development plans in these areas by the opposition groups to pressure the two countries central government are likely and predictable results in border areas studied.
With using of the indicators studied in this research (employment in the three economic sectors and immigration), could be concluded that resources mismanagement and insisting on the continuity of past policies in neighbor border regions between Iran and Turkey has caused loss of capacity in local communities on the one hand and costs increase the central government on the other hand. But with a historical attitude, negative consequences of such land use policies is for Iran more Turkey, so that the formation of intensification of efforts by opposition groups such as Pejak in extensive parts of the border areas of northwestern Iran is an event which occurred in recent years and has led to a change of balance to the loss of Iran against Turkey. Entering Kurds as it controlled to the political and economic life, granting privileges in a series of cultural and linguistic issues to Kurds and solve the problem of Kurdish areas in the design development of large and ambitious are taken by the Government of Turkey (Center for Political and International Studies, 1995: 199).
Continuation of the process and lack of understanding based on conditions of time and space in the preparation of these border areas of Iran, Turkey will stimulate for following strategies. Therefore, the government in Iran as the most important pillar of policy, planning and even preparatory projects, no choice but the testing global experience, including land use of border areas in America - Mexico (Coleman, 2005), the borders of East - West Germany (Jones and Trevor, 1994) and even Turkey - Syria.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Border regions
  • Iran
  • Land Use
  • Turkey.