ارزیابی مسکن گروه‌های درآمدی و ارائه برنامه تأمین مسکن اقشار کم‌درآمد(نمونه موردی: استان لرستان)

نویسندگان

1 استاد دانشکده جغرافیا، دانشگاه تهران

2 کارشناس ارشد جغرافیا و برنامه‌ریزی شهری، دانشگاه زنجان

3 دانشجوی دکتری جغرافیا و برنامه‌ریزی شهری، دانشگاه تهران

4 کارشناس ارشد جغرافیای سیاسی، دانشگاه تهران

چکیده

مسکن کالایی با دوام، غیرمنقول، چند‌بعدی، غیرهمگن و بسیار پرهزینه است و در سازمان اجتماعی فضا نیز نقش بسیار مؤثری دارد. فقر مسکن یکی از جلوه‌های بارز کشورهای در حال توسعه به‌شمار می‌آید. بنابر گزارش سازمان بهداشت جهانی، در سال 2000 بیش از 600 میلیون نفر دارای مسکن‌های غیراستاندارد بوده‌اند. بر همین مبنا و با توجه به نتایج بررسی نویسندگان، هم‌اکنون نزدیک به دوپنجم جمعیت شهرهای استان لرستان در محله‌هایی غیرمقاوم و محروم از فضاهای مناسب و زیست درونی استقرار دارند. هدف این مقاله ارزیابی وضعیت مسکن گروه‌های درآمدی و ارائه برنامه برای اقشار کم‌درآمد، با استفاده از تکنیک‌های آماری مورد استفاده در برنامه‌ریزی مسکن به‌منظور کمک به این برنامه‌ریزی در استان لرستان است. روش‌شناسی (متدولوژی) مقاله بنیادی ـ کاربردی است. متغیرهای مورد بررسی مشتمل بر مساحت زیربنا برحسب دهک‌های درآمدی، برآورد تابع مخارج خانوار، برآورد تابع پیشنهاد اجاره در نقاط شهری استان به تفکیک دهک‌های درآمدی، میزان یا درصد مالکیت و اجاره‌نشینی،‌ وضعیت شغلی سرپرستان خانوارها، گروه‌های غیرمالک برحسب دهک، توان مالی خانوار، خط توانمندی خانوار،‌ خط فقر نسبی و مطلق خانوار در تأمین مسکن،‌ برآورد حجم نیاز سکونتی خانوارهای فقیر، برنامه تأمین مسکن گروه‌های کم‌درآمد و منابع مالی تأمین مسکن است.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Assessing the Housing Statues of Income Groups and Plan Presentation for Low-income Housing Provision (Case Study: Lorestan Province)

نویسندگان [English]

  • Keramatolah Zayyari 1
  • F. Parhiz 2
  • H. Mahdnezhad 3
  • H. Ashtari 4
چکیده [English]

Extended Abstract

Introduction
The housing is a durable, multidimensional, non-homogenous, immoveable, very expensive good, and the main factor signifying the sociability of people within the universe which is accompanied with symbolic values as the sign of status and lifestyle of people. Based on this, the current paper has aimed to evaluate the state of the houses of people of different income classes, to suggest plans for preparing people of low income with appropriate housing at different city spots of the province of Lorestan, and to reveal more about the poor quality of the construction of houses, inappropriate urban planning pattern, and improper materials used for building urban houses, in order to attract the attention of the authorities and managers. Based on the studies we have conducted, nearly two third of the population of the cities in Lorestan live in nondurable houses, deprived from suitable needed spaces.

Methodology
This study is a fundamental – practical study, conducted within the geographic-politic boarders of the province of Lorestan, in the year 2007, the statistics source of which was Iran's Statistics Center. The methods used include statistics techniques of population tenths. In order to estimate financial states of the groups, the indirect function method is being used. Also, in order to define the opportunities, threats, power points and weak points of the low-income groups, the SWOT model is used.
Result and Discussion
Findings of this research show the family size has had a reduction from 4.3 in the year 1997 to 3.7 in the year 2007. Within the period of 1997 to 2007, the mean residential areas owned by the first to the last tenths have had fluctuations in different city spots, i.e. the mean residential area owned by the first tenth as the lowest tenth of the society has increased from 57.9 square meters in 1997 to 82.7 in 2007. On the contrary, the mean residential area owned by the last tenth has decreased from 139.5 to 122.1. In the year 2007, the mean residential area owned by the first tenth was 82.7 square meters, and this value was 60.7 square meters for the second tenth, 107.7 for the third, 99.7 for the fourth, 117.5 for the fifth, 105 for the sixth, 1.6 for the seventh, 102 for the eighth, 112.9 for the ninth and 122.1 for the last tenth which is the highest mean value of the residential area. Within the period of 1997-2007 the rate of owning a house in urban areas of the province of Lorestan has decreased from 54.5 percent to 50 percent. This value has had a great reduction in the second tenth and has decreased from 86.4 percent in 1997 to 34.5 percent in the year 2007. The rate of house ownership has increased in the third tenth, decreased in the fourth tenth, increased in fifth, sixth and seventh tenths and decreased in the last tenths. Tenancy percentage has increased in the first, second, fourth, ninth and last tenths and decreased in the others within the period of 1997 to 2007. Based on the mean price per square meter, in the year 2007 house ownership ability is on average 4.8 square meter of a residential area in the first tenth and about 13 square meters in the fifth tenth. Saving tendency is 5 percent in the first tenth, 4 percent in the second tenth, 6 percent in the third tenth, 8 percent in the fourth tenth, 9 percent in the fifth tenth, 9 percent in sixth, seventh and eighth tenths, 22 in ninth tenths and 19 in the last tenth. The income of these tenths is 3.8, 7.14, 3.13, 22.7, 37.3, 39.8, 58, 70.6, 98.3, 331.2 and 447.2 million Rials respectively. The poverty line in the area of housing has increased within the period of 1997 to 2007 based on both mean value and mid value. In the year 2002, the average poverty line was 4 based on mean value and 36 based on mid value. These amounts were 9 and 9.2 respectively in the year 2007.

Conclusion
The lower tenths of the residents of urban areas in Lorestan province are of the highest unemployment rate, lowest income, and highest rate of tenancy the value of which reduces as we move towards higher tenths. Hence, regarding the volume of housing needs, the first tenths of the society are of higher needs for the tenancy percentage in the province is about 18 percent. The income of the first to fifth tenths is also very low as compared to the average price.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • housing planning
  • Income one-tenths
  • Lorestan province.
  • Low- income groups housing
  • Non-standard housing
  • Relative and absolute poverty