1 استادیار دانشکده جغرافیا، دانشگاه تهران
2 دانشجوی دکتری جغرافیا و برنامهریزی روستایی، دانشگاه تربیت مدرس
3 دانشجوی دکتری جغرافیا و برنامهریزی روستایی، دانشگاه تهران
عنوان مقاله [English]
Rural entrepreneurship can refer to new ventures that happen to be created in rural regions as the result of an intervention, such as a tax subsidy, to attract businesses into an area or via the in-migration of city dwellers that subsequently start businesses. It can also refer to creation of ventures that result from the unique endowments in rural regions that do not exist in metropolitan areas. Such businesses may involve agriculture (viniculture or the farming of high-value specialty foods such as organic produce), lifestyles (eco-tourism, spas and retreats), extraction (mining or forestry), and knowledge industries (software development or artistic-content creation). Nowadays rural entrepreneurs in developing economies may already be living at a subsistence level when making the decision to start the venture. For a sustainable rural enterprise, production must take place at an efficient scale, which implies capital accumulation and hence, savings beyond subsistence level consumption. New ventures in rural areas must be rapidly scalable, which implies considerable investments and technology intensity relative to the share of labor and have access to fast growth demand markets. More importantly, because high value employment opportunities tend to be limited in rural areas, new ventures must be capable of providing employment to family and extended family members.
Therefore, with this introduction, entrepreneurship development is one of the activities that could eliminate very great challenges (unemployment, low income, invariant economic, etc.) in rural area and work in other aspect of rural people life. Thus, the economists and knowledgeable people believe that entrepreneurs are among the main as well as strategic factors in economic development, that by using old method experiences and ellipse their deficiency and replacing the modern and efficient methods enliven to economic system. Therefore, could conclude that rural entrepreneurship is the modern approach in development theories to empowerment and capacity building in rural areas for decreasing the rural- urban gaps, economic, social, environmental and institutional equality creation, and important means in accede to sustainable development. Nonetheless, entrepreneurship development in rural areas, regard to best site selection for activities pitch, related to entrepreneurship. Although, programmers have used different methods with a view to site gradation, but peer that, gradation technique based on multi- criteria decision making analysis is one of the most useful methods for site ranking. Multi-criterion decision-making (MCDM) methods are gaining importance because of their inherent ability to judge different alternative scenarios for selecting the best alternative which may be further analyzed in depth for its final implementation. A multi-criteria decision-making (MCDM) method, called PROMETHEE, was applied to assist with the systematic analysis and evaluation of the alternatives. PROMETHEE (Preference Ranking Organization Method of Enrichment Evaluation) is of out ranking nature.
Results and Discussion
PROMETHEE is a non-parametric outranking method for a finite set of alternatives. It is based on positive (out) and negative (in-) preference flows for each alternative in the valued outranking relation to rank the alternatives according to the selected preferences (weights). Positive flow expresses how much the specific alternative is dominating other alternatives, and negative flow expresses how much that alternative is dominated by the others. The method uses preference function P j (a,b) which is a function of the deference d j between two alternatives for any criterion j, i.e. d j=f (a,j)?f (b,j ) where f (a,j ) and f (b,j ) are values of two alternatives a and b for criterion j. Thus, in this study, PROMETEE technique has been used for entrepreneurship development gradation in rural areas of centric district of Khodabande county. Results show that the rural regions Nazargholi, Aghchehghia and Lachowan acquired the first, second and third ranking. Research methodology is descriptive- analytical.
In rural areas of centric district of Khodabande county specially Nazargholi, Aghchehghia and Lachowan rural, entrepreneurship can be promoted by developing the attitudinal and cognitive readiness of population in scattered settlements, i.e. those who are giving up farming or making their living only partly out of agriculture. Entrepreneurial career orientation could just be one option for them. They could become acquainted with the basics of entrepreneurship, with its varying forms and opportunities in rural contexts. It is important to start from attitudes and then move further on developing knowledge and readiness as usual in rural entrepreneurship education.