استادیار دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، واحد تهران مرکز
The formation of built spaces in composition to open spaces is one of the important subjects in designing architectural spaces. Different factors were important in formation of open spaces in traditional architecture. The kind of function of a building was one of these factors, because the quality of designing courtyards and its elements were dependent to the type and quality of building’s functions. For example there were no trees in the courtyards of Jame mosque, because in Fridays (weekend holidays in Iran) ,there are enough spaces for prayers in it; while there were enough green spaces in old school’s curtyards, because in the past, students studied in traditional schools and the function of these courtyards were similar to the yards houses'.
Some researchers in Iran have written that the formation of courtyards was a reflection of cultural factors. In base of the existing classification in Iran, the buildings are divided only to two kinds- introvert and extrados- which are not reasonable or suitable for generalizability.
The main objective of this research is to show and to prove the relationship between geography and the formation of courtyards in traditional houses in Iran. Methodology of this study has been based on descriptive and analytical methods. The statistical population and samples included the traditional houses in Iran. It is based on field study as well as documentary study.
Results and Discussion
On the base of remaining traces of houses in ancient / historical settlements, that belong to sixth millennium B.C. and after that, in many places in Iran, and on the base of many settlements in Mesopotamia, a house usually was formed of two sections: a covered built space, and an open space, because in south and central regions of Iran and Mesopotamia – and the other regions with the same characteristics – that the climate of half of a year was warm and moderate and less than a semi year, was cold; some of the dwelling`s activities were have done in open spaces.
In spite of obvious role of geographical factors in forming open spaces in the houses, some researchers have said that the cultural factors were the main reasons in shaping courtyards.
It seems that the classifications of different kinds of open spaces and the relation it with the built spaces in Iran, are very general and in many cases aren`t careful.
The main questions of this research are: 1) what were the main factors of forming courtyards in traditional houses? 2) How can categorize the kinds of open spaces in relation to built spaces in traditional houses?
The objectives of performance of this research are first, to pay attention to quality and manner of the effect of geographical factors in forming the open spaces in houses: and second, to present a types of comprehensive classification for typology of kinds of courtyards in houses.
The hypothesis of this research is that the geographical factors had the main and important roles in forming the types of courtyards in traditional houses in Iran. The historical – inter pretational research method has been used in this research. The geographical factors are the independent variables, and the type of open spaces or courtyards, are the dependent ones in it. Data collections were in field and were documentary. The theoretical framework of this research was based upon the main role of geographical factors in forming courtyards in traditional houses.
The results of this research show that the quality and a variety formation of courtyards were influenced by geographical phenomenon, and have presented new classification different types of courtyards in traditional houses in Iran, according to geographical characteristics.
One of the important results of this research is presenting a new classification in types of applied – environmental open spaces or courtyards in Iranian traditional courtyards. The kinds of applied – environmental open spaces at first are divided into two forms: 1) one side courtyards, it means the courtyards that were provided their surrounded buildings from one side (inward, or outward). The one side courtyards are divided into three kinds: inward, outward, and semi inward open spaces.
The two side courtyards, refers the courtyards that were provided their light and ventilation for their surrounding buildings from two sides (inward, and outward) are divided into two forms of inward two side courtyards, and inward – out ward courtyards: while in common classifications in Iran that have been reflected in architectural spaces only were divided in two groups: inward and outward spaces: that is very common and incareful.
It seems that the classification of applied open spaces and courtyards in traditional houses from environmental as well as geographical views into ten forms in Iran todays. They are as follows: 1) atrium, 2) pit – parterre, 3) orangery, 4) backyard, 5) small garden, 6) terrace, 7) stable`s court, 8) ward, 9) enclosure, 10) surrounded flat roof.