عنوان مقاله [English]
نویسندگان [English]چکیده [English]
Many different cities in variant periods confront to respond the increasing population and development, in order to prevent inappropriate development, and tend to draw their patterns of growth and urban development. Now that in recent decades with the emergence of new attitudes to urban development infill development has been considered as part of this paradigm that the current policies in the country regardless of this attention to this postulate, only responds the accountability immediate needs of society and therefore ignores the consequences of such decisions in future developments as well as their impacts. Hence smart growth concepts provide appropriate development and urban growth patterns providing housing programs in order to supply affordable residential units are among the major necessities. But should be noted that these concepts without regard to localization these concepts has the consequences much worse will follow. Hence precise concepts, challenges, strategies of these models for localizing them should be surveyed.
The main objective of this article is recognition the housing policies of Maskan Mehr in Iran as the most important general policies in housing and urban development and scientific criticism of its necessity and the limits of urban development as well as presenting infill development as a smart growth model or an adaptive strategy in this urban smart growth policies. So first, paid for the need to develop horizontal city that has persisted in Maskan Mehr so that if these growth are really necessary or it can replace with another growth pattern and model and then explain the process and the framework of infill development and will ultimately feasibility infill development as alternative housing solution has been considered. This phase revealed infill development by using current infrastructure and preventing sprawl growth try to decrease cost of growth and development but there is some physical and ordinance challenge to use of this pattern of growth.
First of all, the article argues about the necessity of the mentioned approach in city growth and if this growth is an adaptive policy to respond the physical, social and economic necessity, or it is just a temporary solution to housing problems. In this phase the study is based upon two models of urban growth. 1) The sprawl growth as a current model of growth in Iranian cities; and 2) The infill development that is based on smart growth and new urbanism. In a comparative assessment, it should be found that, according to the case-study, which model is suitable for urban growth. So if the approach of Maskan Mehr is based on the sprawl growth, it is suitable; otherwise it will cause a lot of economic, physical and social effect. Actually sprawl growth accurse in exterior land, but infill development means development of a vacant parcel, or an assemblage of vacant parcels, within an established area of the city, and which is bordered along at least three-quarters of the parcel’s, or combined parcels’, perimeter by developed land. Moreover, such parcels generally have different utilities and street access available adjacent to the parcel, and has other public services and facilities available near-by. Generally, these sites are vacant because they were once considered of insufficient size for development, because the existing buildings located on the site were demolished, or because there were various sites, more suitable or less costly ones for development. Then the frameworks, necessities, challenges and action plans for infill development will be considered. And finally it finds that the zones include suitable physical potentials to localization of infill development in Natanz, Iran.
Results and Discussion
Primeval result of this article shows that the infill development can manage as a guidance urban growth to reduce the costs and effects of widespread growth and extol the optimal usage of current infrastructure and facilities. In this case study, Maskan Mehr localization, necessary attentions have not been paid; and definitely it leads to increase the costs of building new infrastructures and other facilities such as roads, structure, primary facilities, commercial zones etc. But in current city boundary, there are a lot of arid lands where the residents have moved immigrated to other places and Brownfield early was farmland or forest. This site makes possible for urban management policies to use this opportunity in order to guide city growth into infill development.
Overall results of this study show that the cities can load growth into infill development strategy their current facilities and urban structure support it, by the way Maskan Mehr as the current housing policy beyond the structure and facilities is formed in current city, and double the cost to provide infrastructure and urban services will impose to urban management authorities. Hence the direct public investment flows towards infill development, while optimum use of the existing capacity, the cost of urban growth will considerably be reduced in all aspects such as environmental, economic categories, as well as the social ones.