جهانی‎شدن و سرزمین‎سازی در جغرافیای سیاسی

نویسندگان

1 استادیار گروه جغرافیا، دانشگاه شهید بهشتی، تهران

2 استادیار گروه جغرافیای سیاسی‌، دانشگاه پیام نور، تهران

3 دانشجوی دکترای جغرافیای سیاسی، دانشگاه تهران

چکیده

جغرافیای سیاسی دانشی مفید و اساسی برای فهم معادله‎ها و جریان‎های بین‎المللی در عصر کنونی و آینده است. مفاهیمی ماندگار و حیاتی مرتبط به زندگی انسان‎ها، ازجمله سرزمین در این بخش از علوم انسانی مطالعه می‎شود، اما هم‎اکنون بحث‎های زیادی در رابطه با بی‎اهمّیّت‎شدن و از موضوعیّت افتادن مفهوم سرزمین در عصر جهانی‎شدن وجود دارد. بحث سرزمین‎زدایی آنچنان انجمن‎های علمی و دانشگاهی را به خود جذب کرده که گویی جهانی‎شدن به‎معنای سرزمین‎زدایی است. این نوشتار با نگاهی آینده‎پژوهانه و رویکردی نوواقع‎گرایانه تلاش دارد، فرایند جهانی‎شدن را با نگاهی سرزمینی تحلیل کند؛ بدین معنی که وجود فراملّی‎گرایی یا فراسرزمینی شدن جریان‎ها انکار نمی‎شود، ولی به نوعی سعی در اثبات سرزمینی‎سازی مجدّد جریان‎ها و پدیده‎های گوناگون در عصر جهانی‎شدن دارد. به‎علاوه، استدلال اصلی این نوشتار این است که قلمرو سرزمینی (سرزمین و مرز) در دوره‎ی جهانی‎شدن از بین نرفته، بلکه کارکرد آن متحوّل شده است. این باور نیز وجود دارد که قلمرو سرزمینی، به‎دلیل نیاز انسان به تفاوت ـ و هرآنچه که جغرافیاست ـ ماندگار بوده و جهانی‎شدن، فراملّی شدن و... جایگاه و نقش آن را در زندگی اشتراکی انسان از بین نمی‎برد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Globalization and Territoriality in Political Geography

نویسندگان [English]

  • H. R. Mohammadi 1
  • M. R. Heidary Far 2
  • Sh. Heidari 3
چکیده [English]

Extended Abstract

Introduction
Territory is one of the essential pillars of political geography. Nevertheless, there are a lot of discussion about dissubjectivity and unimportance of territory at the age of globalization. The discourses about deterritorialization have attracted the academic and scientific groups so much that some believe that Globalization equals deterritorialization.
This essay using a neo-realism approach has tried to analyze the process of Globalization having territorial vision. In other words, while it does not deny exterritorial and transnational processes but we put emphasis on reterritorialization of various phenomenon and processes at the age of globalization .the assumption is that territory and boundary cannot be obliterated but their function have changed .likewise, it is believed in this paper that for the needs of human to different and geography, territory will fix and globalization and transnationalization do not diminish its role and situation in the communal human life.
The term “globalization” was first used in the mid- 1960 and entered into popular usage in the mid-1990. Few deny there is something going on “out there” which is radically restructuring the world.
A common image of globalization is one of a process that unfolds like a blanket across the globe, homogenizing the world’s economies, societies and cultures as it falls. Everywhere becomes the same, boundaries do not matter and distance disappears.

A definition reflection geographical point is found in Cloke et als Introduction Human Geographies:
The economic, political, social and cultural process whereby: a) places across the globe are increasingly interconnected, b) social relations and economic transactions increasingly occur at the intercontinental scale, and c) the globe itself comes to be a recognizable geographic entity. As such, globalization does not mean that everywhere in the world becomes the same. Nor is it entirely even process, different places are differently connected into the world and view that world from different perspectives

Methodology
This article with its new realism approach has descriptive methodology and is based on analyzing and reasonable arguments. There are also some evidences such as deploying and using of sophisticated technology in US borders that demonstrate positivist aspects in the project. This objective evidences have been done by the researches of others.
The methodology of this project has emphasized on the analytical- descriptive method that its data and its information has been gathered by ways which are common such as books and journals in libraries and other sources like Internet. And assumption which this article based on it is that territorial realm (territory and border in whole) dose not obliterate, but its function has been changed so that new territories in the global age will be created.

Results and Discussion
Geographers consider the debates in academic and political meetings about deterritorialization in the era of globalization. The fact is there are contradictory view about these tow concepts (territory and globalization) which they are essential in geography. While some body especially geographers tries to prove the role and importance of territory in human life, others- critics- believe that geography and territory will not matter in future. Territorial mechanisms such as the state are going to collapse, disintegrate and weaken in uncertain fate and their deeds and functions do not have any territorial aspect. In fact, there is a gap between political, cultural and economic functions of the state and government with the phenomenon of territory. In one hand, security is not territorial but has transformed to global. Terrorism, mass destruction weapons, cyber crime, global criminal organization, global disease such HIV do not respect borders and pass all territorial limits. Human link to place and home has been cut and in the other hand universalism and universal human and development for the planet earth has its own value. Non- place processes, non-territorial institutions, organizations and companies achieve the promise of a new type of social relationships. New emerging phenomenon is near and some geographical concepts such as governance, The state, territory, country, borders, area, region, variety and the differences has been eliminated and new shapes such as global unity, global village, Global Nation, global government, global culture, global economy and ... Have been created.
Geographers have considered these ideas and have tried to formulate and speake about globalization. Set of theoretical discussions which expressed by analysts of globalization called globalists indicate the end of territorial subject and border for social life in this new era. But we witness a kind of differences, identity, cultures instead of unity, single identity, and single culture in the world. While globalization is occurring localization also is being strengthened.

Conclusion
It has been tried to show that despite some scholars such as Apadouri and Ohmaee pointed out, territory dose not loss its subjectivity in upcoming years. From one hand, according to the article globalization is a reality and in the other hand according to new realism approach used in the article and evidences around the world we are live in where territory in future will remain as a player. Territory is a main factor in social life in globalization and terms such as death of territory and elimination of its subject will not be relevant. The territorial instinct and emotion and sense link to place determines that human beings need to know themselves and limits for him in places and immortality of territory despite the information explosion. Supra territorial and transnational flows and processes in the global era dose not refused but it is expressed alongside these streams reterritorlization and territoriality in the future of the world will be seen. In general, it can be said that based on objective evidence and realistic reasons statements like disappearance of territorial factor from social life would be meaningless. In addition, territoriality in 21st century is composed of two basic pillars: on one hand there is deterritorialitzation of flows and currents and in some cases and parts of human interaction – the communication, digitalization and virtualization of currents- cause to reduce of the significance of territory. But on the other hand, the second column is reterritorialization in the future which continues forever. Territory and territoriality is an integral part of human activities and enduring part of human and environment relationship. Attempts of developed states or countries of the North for reinforcement of borders and prevent of immigration- despite numerous discussions regarding the remove of border in global era- prove our claims.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Deterritorialization
  • Globalization
  • Reterritorialization.
  • Territory