بررسی عوامل مؤثّر بر تشکیل تعاونی‎های تولیدی در مناطق روستایی(مطالعه‎ی موردی: استان اردبیل)

نویسنده

استادیار گروه جغرافیا، دانشگاه محقّق اردبیلی

چکیده

به باور بسیاری از کارشناسان، مهم‎ترین مانع توسعه‎ی بخش کشاورزی در ایران نظام بهره‎برداری؛ یعنی کوچکی و پراکندگی اراضی کشاورزی و تعداد زیاد بهره‎برداران این بخش است. این مسئله بعد از انجام اصلاحات ارضی در ایران به‎وجود آمده و از آن زمان تا کنون برای رفع آن، راه‎حل‎های گوناگون ارائه و اجرا شده‎اند که به دلایل مختلفی موفّق نبوده و به شکست انجامیده است. در برنامه‎ی پنج ساله‎ی اوّل توسعه‎ی کشور، این مسئله بار دیگر مورد توجّه قرار گرفته و برای حلّ آن تشکیل تعاونی‎های تولید روستایی پیشنهاد شده است. پژوهش پیش رو، بررسی عوامل مؤثّر بر تشکیل این تعاونی‎ها، در محدوده‎ی استان اردبیل را نشان می‎دهد. همچنین به این پرسش اساسی پرداخته شده است که آیا بین تشکیل تعاونی‎های تولیدی در مناطق روستایی و عوامل محیطی، اقتصادی، ترویجی و اجتماعی رابطه‎ی معناداری وجود دارد؟ برای رسیدن به این پاسخ، شاخص‎های تبیین‎کننده‎ی عضویّت کشاورزان در تعاونی‎های تولیدی، بر اساس نوشتارهای موجود و منطقه‎ی مورد مطالعه گردآوری و پرسش‎نامه‎ای در سطح کشاورزان عضو تعاونی‎های تولیدی طرّاحی شد. بدین‎ترتیب از روش توصیفی ـ تحلیلی به‎شیوه‎ی پیمایشی استفاده شد. برای گزینش نمونه‎ها از روش خوشه‎ای چندمرحله‎ای و تعداد نمونه‎ها با توجّه به حجم جامعه‎ی مورد مطالعه300 نفر برآورد شده است. درنهایت، این نتیجه به‎دست آمد که عامل ترویجی، بیشترین تأثیر را در میزان تشکیل تعاونی‎های تولیدی در مناطق روستایی داشته است و در مرحله‎ی بَعد عامل اجتماعی، عامل اقتصادی و عامل محیطی به‎ترتیب از عوامل تأثیرگذار در تشکیل تعاونی‎های تولیدی در مناطق روستایی بوده است. همچنین بر اساس یافته‎های این پژوهش، راهکارهایی برای هدایت کشاورزان به تشکیل تعاونی‎های تولیدی در مناطق روستایی در متن مقاله ارائه شده است.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Survey of Factors Influencing Establishment Productive Cooperatives on Rural Regions (Case Study: Ardabil Province)

نویسنده [English]

  • vakil heidari sarban
چکیده [English]

Extended Abstract

Introduction
Production cooperatives by reason of inefficiency of petty landowner for creation mobility on agriculture sector are suitable tools for agriculture situation amelioration and rural areas development. Also production cooperatives play important role at redistribution earned benefits from agriculture sector growth, dynamic employment formation .In this manner, one of the rural development obstacles are dispersion and Fragmentation of farm lands on Iran. It is obvious that dispersion and Fragmentation of farm lands promote production costs by reason of production way, nonentity usage of some of the inputs and machinery and etc. at the end aforementioned cases delay rural development. Also solving of this problem is subject to the formation of production cooperatives in the rural areas.
The science findings show that rural development is the first step for attainment of national development. And the most important of factors of rural development is subject to the promotion of rural people enthusiasm and ability to formation of productive co-operatives in the rural areas in the base of sustainability principle and profitability. It is obvious that our country has very problem including a little of productivity at the level unit and population explosive growth and And every year the tremendously amount of gained currency of oil sale are allocated for importing of agriculture productions. Therefore the supply of country food security and agriculture production imports modification for keeping of the excessive needs of country population are subject to the increasing of inputs size at the level unit and at the end of the creation of a basic change in the existence agriculture system via formation productive co-operatives in the rural areas. In addition, many of researches are believe that the one of ways for eradication of country food security difficulty are result from pay attention to the reform of farming systems in the agriculture district. Also rural production co-operatives are created for the removal of farmer’s basics needs. Also the one of rural development obstacles in Iran are dispersion and Fragmentation of farm lands. It is obvious that this problem is eradicated by formation of rural production cooperative. Also the realization of the farmer’s membership at the rural productive co-operatives results from the promotion of farmer’s traditional knowledge and their awareness. Such the increasing of information, knowledge, skill and incentive creating for accepting of innovation, information increasing and the subtraction of attainment cost for it cause that are prepared the ground of farmer’s membership on rural production co-operative. Also the most important of the affective factors of farmer’s membership at the productive co-operative are economic, social, environmental, extension and environmental specialties. In addition creations and enlargement of the productive employment generation, unemployment decline and the supply of basic needs and the increasing of public welfare indexes and the realization of entrepreneurship in the rural areas are one way of productive co-operatives important aims. Such productive co-operatives cause productive employment generation with investment for young people’s with increasing of their awareness.

Methodology
The total aim of this research is analyzing of factors influencing on farmer’s member ship in the rural productive cooperative. At this research the way of data gathering for accountability of the research questions, in the way documentation and survey and used instrument on survey method has been questionnaire. The research method is descriptive- correlation .Such as on the present research for samples selectivity was used from multi- stage cluster sampling techniques. Also a lot of the samples this researches by regarding target population (300) such as the studies of Krejicie and Morgan table were estimated. In addition for determination of reliability of the questionnaire quantities have used from point of views some of from different experts and thinker competitors. In addition for determination of reliability of questionnaire quantities was used from Corn Bach coefficient and SPSS software. At this research a lot of mentioned alpha (0.78) was calculated that this condition is desirable.

Results and Discussion
Also above discussed that productive co-operative on rural regions have very important from point of view the redistributing of gained benefits from agriculture district growth, dynamic and productive creating , the increasing of productivity size at level unit, the establishment of a deep and basic change on agriculture system, the subtraction of agriculture district investment and …
Also the results of statistical analysis in relation to research hypothesis including Chi-Square, Multiple Regression, T-Test, Path Analysis Model for determination the among of people deferent specialties from point of view economical, social, extensional, environmental factors and their membership on productive cooperative show that significant relation exist except the variables of the among of rural people maintain tendency, the amount of durable consumer goods usage, the amount of fertilizer consumption and under cultivation surface .
Also the results of statistical analysis in relation to extensional indexes by multiple regression ways show that from among of extensional indexes variables have remained three variables on equation by computer and the remainder of variables have exited from equation. And this three variable have explained %12 changes. Also the results of statistical analysis in relation to economical indexes show that from among of economical indexes variables have remained three variables on equation by computer and the remainder of variables has exited from equation .and these three variables have explained %13 changes. Also the results of statistical analysis in relation to economical indexes show that from among of social indexes variables have remained five variables on equation by computer and the remainder of variables has exited from equation .and these three variables have explained %36 changes.

Conclusion
In total results of statistics analysis by through of different statistical tests such as path analysis model showed that from among of different factors of extensional, economical, social, and environmental on the formation of productive co-operatives, extensional factors , have direct impact and indirect on the formation of rural productive co-operative on rural regions. Therefore country authorities must play important role at this ground for acceleration and expedition of agriculture district development by establishment of rural productive cooperatives.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Agricultural development
  • Ardabil province.
  • production cooperatives
  • Rural Development