تبیین عوامل مؤثّر بر توانمندسازی روستاییان در توسعه‎ی کارآفرینی(مطالعه‎ی موردی: بخش‌های زند و سامن شهرستان ملایر)

نویسندگان

1 استاد دانشکده‎ی جغرافیا، دانشگاه تهران

2 دانشیار دانشکده‎ی جغرافیا، دانشگاه تهران

3 دانشیار دانشکده‎ی کارآفرینی، دانشگاه تهران

4 دانشجوی دکترای جغرافیا و برنامه‌ریزی روستایی، دانشگاه تهران

چکیده

کارآفرینی به‌عنوان ابزاری است در دست برنامه‌ریزان که جوامع را به‎سمت توسعه پیش ببرند. از آنجاکه همه‌ی جوامع یا همه‌ی افراد درون یک کشور، برای دستیابی به شرایط کارآفرینی موقعیّت مساوی ندارند، باید شرایط لازم را برای توسعه‎ی کارآفرینی در سرزمین، ایجاد کرد. منطقه‎ی مورد مطالعه در این پژوهش، بخش‌های زند و سامن شهرستان ملایر است. روستاییان این ناحیه، شرایط مطلوبی برای کارآفرینی ندارند. بنابراین، توانمندسازی رسالتی است که برای پرکردن این خلأ تعریف شده ‌است. در این پژوهش شرایطی که شایستگی لازم را در افراد برای تصمیم به ایجاد یا توسعه‎ی کسب‌و‌کار به‌وجود می‌آورد، در دو گروه فردی و محیطی با چهارده متغیّر تعریف شده‌اند. جامعه‌ی مورد مطالعه در این تحقیق کارآفرینان روستایی هستند که حدّاقل دارای سه سال سابقه‎ی فعّالیّت موفّق در کسب‌و‌کار کنونی بوده و کار آنان به‎نوعی با نوآوری آغاز شده و تداوم این روند در فعّالیّت آنان قابل مشاهده است. برای جمع‌آوری داده‌ها از توزیع پرسشنامه در بین 53 نفر کارآفرین در دسترس در ناحیه استفاده شده‌است. برای فراهم‎کردن امکان مقایسه‎ی نتایج، همین تعداد از روستاییان ساکن در محدوده‎ی مورد مطالعه، به‌عنوان گروه کنترل مشارکت داده ‌شدند. داده‌‌پردازی و تحلیل داده‌ها باکمک نرم‌افزار SPSS صورت گرفت. روش مورد استفاده در هر دو گروه، تحلیل عاملی از طریق تحلیل مؤلّفه‌های اصلی بود. از بررسی مربوط به گروه کارآفرینان تعداد ده عامل مؤثّر بر افزایش توانمندی روستاییان برای توسعه‌ی کارآفرینی شناسایی شدند. این عوامل به‎ترتیب اولویت در تأثیر عبارت‎اند از: عامل پشتکار، عامل سازمانی، مالی و اقتصادی، آموزش و الگوی نقش، استقلال فردی، تجربه‎های قبلی، خلاّقیّت، احساس موفّقیّت و عامل مرکز کنترل درونی. درنتیجه می‌توان گفت وجود عوامل فردی و محیطی یاد‌شده در افزایش توانمندی روستاییان برای ایجاد و توسعه‎ی کسب‌و‌کار تأثیر دارد. عوامل مؤثّر از منظر گروه کنترل در این تحقیق عبارت‎اند از: عامل سازمانی، عامل منابع مالی و اقتصادی، عامل مهارت و دانش، عامل خانواده، عامل عزّت نفس، عامل مشارکت اجتماعی و عامل زیرساختی.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Explain the Factors Affecting Rural Empowerment in Entrepreneurship Development (Case Study: Samen and Zand Cunties of Malayer Township)

نویسندگان [English]

  • Seyed Hasan Motiee Langroodi 1
  • M. Ghadiri Maesoum 1
  • fazileh dadvarkhani 2
  • J. Yadollahi Farsi 3
  • Z. Torkashvand 4
چکیده [English]

Extended Abstract

Introduction
Developing countries as well as our country are grappling with problems of concern that, without exaggeration, economic problems, lack of income and unemployment are the most important of these cases. Of many people, the root of the ravages of the country returns to major failures in the villages and the lack of proper management of environmental and human resources.
Entrepreneurship is regarded as a tool for planners to guide the societies towards development. There is a growing evidence to suggest that that there is a signi?cant causal relationship between entrepreneurship, economic growth and poverty reduction As there is not available equal situation for the public to create entrepreneurship, the necessary conditions are vital to provide. The region of study is Zand and samen township in Malayer, Hamadan whose villagers are deprived from suitable occupation and income and don’t exploit the entrepreneurship in spite of graduated workforce and natural resources available. Even lack of villager entrepreneurship was a serious limitation to precede the research. Therefore, enrichment and empowering the people to enter this field is the duty to be paid attention to, in this research The question is, whether human or environmental conditions and circumstances change so that the strengthen motivations be entrepreneurial in the way they choose to be an entrepreneur?

Methodology
Data was collected through filling questionnaires, field study and library resources. Rural entrepreneurs are studied in this research, that, at least three years' experience in successful business must be current. Necessary conditions for creating entrepreneurial capability are divided into two groups, individual and environmental, which 14 variables. The population concerned in this research is rural entrepreneurs with at least three successful activities in their present business while their profession is based on innovation and continuity. The questionnaires were distributed among 53 entrepreneurs of the region and the research as the control group to compare the results. The questionnaire questions were raised in closed form. Its validity was confirmed by experts and university professors. SPSS software was used to analyze data. The method used in two groups was factor analysis through analyzing main components. Factors that have most influenced by what and how much each is affected? By identifying these factors and propose them to the rural planning authorities, can be used for the comprehensive development of villages.

Results and Discussion
Type variables in the conceptual model of research, is described. Total of 14 factors that are considered in this study, have a direct impact on rural empowerment. Some of these factors referring to individual characteristics and a number of other factors are located in space, thus affect on individual entrepreneur, decisions and his behavior. These factors are generally one of three bases of model and two other pillars include people with entrepreneurial ability and the benefits of entrepreneurial activity is created in society, is the third pillar.
The desired space in the first pillar is more favorable and more and more associated with the entrepreneur is the individual features will be higher. Thus, the factors are told, are very important. During the review and processing of data, some of the factors that have less impact on their capacity for entrepreneurship were excluded, so factors had remained the largest eigenvalue.

Conclusion
There were recognized 10 influential factors on the increase of villagers` empowerment to develop entrepreneurship ordered as perseverance: Organization factor, financial and economic factor, education and role pattern, individual independence, previous experience, creativity, sense of successful and internal control center. It is concluded that individual and environmental factors help to enhance the villagers` empowerment to create business. The influencing factors from the view point of control group are organization factor, financial and economic resources, knowledge and skill, family, self-esteem, social participation and underlying structure. Based on the findings of this research, corporate sectors, institutional, trade and legislation for the importance of empowerment of rural entrepreneurs, should be corrected as soon as possible and learn to use proper procedures.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Empowerment
  • factor analysis
  • Malayer Township.
  • Rural Entrepreneurship
  • Samen Counties
  • Zand Counties