شکل پایدار شهر و عدالت اجتماعی(مطالعه‎ی موردی: شهر میاندوآب)

نویسنده

استادیار گروه جغرافیا و برنامه‌ریزی شهری، دانشگاه ارومیه

چکیده

هدف این پژوهش، بررسی تأثیر الگوی توسعه‎ی شهری بر نحوه‎ی توزیع خدمات و امکانات شهری در شهر میاندوآب است. بر این اساس، روش پژوهش توصیفی ـ تحلیلی است که از مدل‌های آماری از قبیل ضریب همبستگی و رگرسیون‌های خطّی، غیرخطّی، لگاریتمی، وارونه و نمایی در نرم‌افزار رایانه‌ای SPSS استفاده شده است. با مبنا قرار دادن تراکم شهری به‎عنوان مشکل توسعه‎ی شهری، شهر میاندوآب دارای توسعه‎ی فشرده شهری است؛ زیرا تراکم خالص شهری 235 نفر در هکتار و تراکم ناخالص 5/62 نفر در هکتار برآورده شده است. همچنین با استفاده از 13 شاخص خدماتی نحوه‎ی توزیع خدمات در 30 محلّه‎ی شهر بررسی شده است که 2 محلّه دارای توزیع خدمات کاملاً متعادل، 5 محلّه تقریباً متعادل، 10 محلّه نیمه‎متعادل و 13 محلّه نامتعادل در توزیع خدمات بوده‌اند. برقراری ارتباط آماری بین تراکم خالص جمعیّت و z-score توزیع خدمات نشان می‌دهد که تراکم جمعیّت با توزیع خدمات دارای رابطه معناداری نسبی است. به‎گونه‎ای که محلّه‎هایی با تراکم جمعیّتی خیلی بالا، دارای توزیع خدمات کاملاً نامتعادل هستند. بنابراین آسیب‌پذیری توسعه‎ی شهری میاندوآب با معیار قراردادن توزیع خدمات (عدالت اجتماعی) آشکار شد. به همین منظور به الگوی بهینه‎ی تراکم جمعیّتی از طریق آزمون آماری مبادرت شده که تراکم جمعیّتی 250 نفر در هکتار در هر محلّه به‎عنوان الگوی توسعه‎ی شهری پایدار تعریف می‌شود.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Sustainable Form of the City and Social Justice(Case Study: Miandoaab)

نویسنده [English]

  • mirnajaf mousavi
چکیده [English]

Extended Abstract

Introduction
Inequality in the distribution of services and facilities in different neighborhoods of a city follows the overall pattern of urban growth "compact city" and "large city", in a way that the sustainable urban form includes such urban developments that lead to the formation of justice community in the cities. The urban growth pattern consists of two Compact cities and Spared out that most cities have followed from one of these patterns, these two forms are claim in Sustainable forms of cites and these patterns have different influence on urban services and facilities are distributed. The purpose of this essay is to study the pattern of urban development on the way of distribution of urban utility and services in Miandoaab city.

Methodology
According to the research objectives and components survey, this article is applied research. The Method Research Is Descriptive-Analytical. A survey, based on administrative divisions mentioned in various Places - Housing and Physical Planning is in 2006 year. Also by using of 13 utility indexes, the method of distribution of utility was studied at 30 regions. Using Methods of standardized score (Z-Score), different types of correlation and regression in the SPSS computer software.

Results and Discussion
Like other Iranian cities, Miandoab, after land reform has experienced a rapid urbanization growth. But the rapid urbanization growth caused by land reforms did not lead to disproportionate amounts of physical development and physical growth of the city. The most important criterion for the analysis of spatial equity and growth in the City of Miandoaab is the distribution of urban services that with using the standardized scores, distribution of services in different localities has been studied. According to 1956 statistics, Miandoab has an area of 84 hectares and its population of 14,767 people, and thus the mass urban population is estimated at about 176 people per hectare. Physical expansion of the city during the years of 1956-2006 was almost faster than population growth, and density of the city decreases from 176 people per hectare to 62.5 ha, that reflects the comparative horizontal continuing expansion with a nearly relatively high speed. Density reduction and further area growth because of city development, has been toward the Zarineh Rood and near the river many lands has been allocated for green areas, trees and parks. However, Miandoab city comparing with the other cities had a high population density. Physical development of the city is as a compact city development.

Conclusion
According to city density as problem of urban development. Miandoaab city has the compact urban development, because by urban net-density with 235 people per hectare and population -density 62.5 person per hectare was estimated. Also by using of 13 utility indexes, the method of distribution of utility was studied at 30 regions. Those 2 ones were have the balanced distribution of utility completely, 5 once were rather balanced, 10 ones were half- balanced and 13 once were un-balanced. Linking statistic relationship between population net-density and z-score distribution utility shows that population density and distribution service have the impressive comparative relation, while regions with rather over population density have the distribution services completely un-balanced. According to, damageability of urban development of Miandoaab city was appear by criterion of distribution of services (social justice) For this purpose optimal population density pattern by means of ventured statistic examination that population density with 250 person per hectare in any region is called sustainable urban development pattern.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • City Form
  • Distribution Service
  • Miandoaab.
  • Population density
  • Social Justice