هیدروپولیتیک هیرمند: دلایل، آثار و پیامدها

نویسندگان

1 استادیار گروه جغرافیای سیاسی، دانشگاه شهید بهشتی

2 کارشناس ارشد جغرافیای سیاسی، دانشگاه شهید بهشتی

چکیده

کمبود آب، به‎ویژه در مناطق خشک و نیمه‎خشک جهان از مسائل و مشکلات سده‎ی کنونی است. براساس پیش‎بینی‎هایی برای سال 2030، حدود 47 درصد از جمعیّت جهان، در مناطقی با کمبود شدید آب زندگی خواهند کرد. دسته‎ای از ژئوپولیتیسین‎ها سده‎ی کنونی را "سده‎ی هیدروپولیتیک" می‎نامند. هیدروپولیتیک به مطالعه‎ی اثر تصمیم‎گیری‎های مربوط به استفاده از آب در شکل‎گیری‎های سیاسی در روابط میان دولت‎ها یا روابط میان دولت‎ها و مردم یک کشور می‎پردازد. بر این مبنا رودخانه‎ی هیرمند که رودخانه‎ای بین‎المللی است و در جنوب‎غرب افغانستان و شرق ایران جریان دارد، مورد توجّه قرار گرفته است. پژوهش پیش رو با روش توصیفی ـ تحلیلی در پی پاسخ به این پرسش است که کدام عوامل در ایجاد وضعیّت کنونی ـ خشک شدن ‎هامون‎ها و حجم کم آورد رودخانه ـ تأثیرگذار بوده‎اند؟ یافته‎های پژوهش نشان می‎دهد که عوامل مختلفی ازجمله، حضور قدرت‎های تأثیرگذار منطقه‎ای، همچون انگلستان با داوری‎های انجام شده، اختلاف‎نظرهای ایدئولوژیک، تأسیسات احداث شده بر روی رودخانه و بروز خشکسالی‎های دوره‎ای، در بروز این مسئله نقش داشته‎اند. هیرمند تنها منبع تأمین‎کننده‎ی آب سیستان است. حجم کم آورد رودخانه موجب شده که مردم به‎دلیل وابستگی مستقیم و غیرمستقیم به هیرمند شغل و درآمد خود را از دست بدهند. مهاجرت گسترده از منطقه‎ی سیستان، از بین رفتن اقتصاد محلّی و تغییر شیوه‎ی زندگی مردم ساکن دشت سیستان از پیامدهای این مسئله است. بنابراین پیشنهاد می‎شود هر دو کشور با رسیدن به درک مشترکی از مسئله، برای توافق بر یک طرح جامع مدیریتی آب تلاش کنند. در این راه سرمایه‎گذاری در اجرای طرح‎های مشترک آبیاری و تغییر نوع کشت محصولات می‎تواند راهگشا باشد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Hydropolitic of Hirmand : Reasons, Results and Outcomes

نویسندگان [English]

  • J. Etaat 1
  • I. Varzesh 2
چکیده [English]

Extended Abstract

Introduction
Water is primarily basic material of Human’s life; it is used for drinking, agriculture, industry and transportation. It is predicted that two-third of the world population will experience the average to high pressure of water shortage in year 2025. Water is not following the geographic (political) frontiers, like about 40% of world population are living in river basins and lakes where include two or more countries. Although Middle East and North of Africa region have 5% of the population of the world, they only access one percent of the measure of world water. Consequently, there are great competitions for accessing water in any levels from local to international. So that’s why, the 21’st century is called “Hydro politic” by some of geo politicians. Hydropolitics studies the effect of decision-making related to using water in policy-making on relations among governments and people of a country. The shortage of water or permit for passing water from international boundaries is effective on political relations of governments and nations and also the relations of countries with each other. According to this approach, in this article, Hirmand River is to be noticed as an international river in the Middle East area. The River which is streaming in the west south of Afghanistan and the east of Iran, affects local economy in both sides frontiers of two countries and reducing in beneficial share in any side would have some backwashes. Sistan region is the ending part of a district surrounded in aridity which has been located in one of the driest regions of the universe. This plain has located in the north of Sistan and Baloochestan province, and it has 15000 km2 area. The conditions of living in this region is only the time possible that an external water source is

existed for feeding the region. Hirmand River is the only provision source of water in Sistan plain.

Methodology
The following research is of descriptive-analytical type. Considering the topic nature in this research, data was collected through library and also referring to the various organizations. Also, most sources on this topic, including Persian ones, were used in this research. The main objective to this research was to study the factors which are effective in drying Hamun Rivers and low stream flow and also to study its aftermaths. Research results are analyzed through descriptive-analytical method.

Results and Discussion
Current research object is to find reasons, results and the outcomes of drying plains and reducing water volume of the river in Sistan plain and has following approaches: Since independence of Afghanistan, human and natural factors have affected on water entering rate of Hirmand River to Sistan of Iran. Umpiring done by Gold Smith and Mac Mahoon, were according to Britain government’s benefit. Regarding Gold Smith’s standpoint, natural integrity of Sistan disrupted, so Sistan is divided in two parts: inside part and outside part. Also according to Mac Mahoon’s vote, the volume of water needed for Sistan of Iran was neglected. In fact 26 m3/s of water which was denoted in the contract of 1351 (Jalali-Clalender) could not meet Sistan plain’s needs. During Taliban’s government, idea logic disagreements lead to cut the flowing of Hirmand water. Establishing two dams called Kajaki and Arghandab on Hirmand river and developing agricultural activities and also the existence of about 750 km irrigation canal in the Hirmand basin which is kept and exploited by Afghanistan government is also one of the reason of Hirmand entry decrease of water to Iran. Periodic droughty phases are also the effective elements in which has influenced on volume of Hirmand water. Most of Sistan plain population have dependant on Hirmand water flow directly or indirectly. A number of dwelling places have used water of river via streams or canals for agricultural activities. The villages which have used the water of river indirectly include those groups of dwelling places which have resided around the Hamun. These numbers have dependant on Hamun's products; the cane fields have been used as the fuel despite providing animal's provender and using them in producing hand crafts. While the Hamun is full of water, about 1090 rural families have done some work in fishing part, and about 2000 rural families have also hunted aquatic birds along other activities. As a result of Hamun being dried and water flow of Hirmand being stopped, the Sistanian fishermen have lost their jobs and have migrated to other parts of the country; especially south of Iran. Due to not giving "water right" of Iran by Afghanistan, a number of dwelling places have also become empty of residents. In the way that the whole number of village empty of residents in Sistan has been increased from 150 cases in 1375 to 236 in 1381. Missing incomes, that have been earned via farming, gardening, animal husbandry, hunting and fishing, meant a part of residents have had other activities such as smuggling goods, fuel and

narcotics. In the way that discoveries of narcotics in 1389 has been with 116% growth proportionate to 1388.

Conclusion
Therefore, the economy of Sistan plain has been completely dependent on the water flow of Hirmand River. Decreasing and stopping of the water flow of river has casual local economy of Sistan to be eradicated due to the pointed out factors. Sistan region is a sample of natural crisis which only can be solved that two countries of Iran and Afghanistan cooperate with each other. So, the two-side attempts should be concentrated in order to reach a common understanding. These attempts should be led to a managing designee of water that extends all the regions affected by Hirmand water from two sides of the boundary.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Afghanistan.
  • Hydropolitics
  • Iran
  • Sistan plain
  • The Hirmand River