راهبردهای ساختار زیست‎محیطی شهر با رویکرد توسعه‎ی پایدار شهری(مطالعه‎ی موردی: شهر کرج)

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکترای جغرافیا و برنامه‎ریزی شهری، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، واحد علوم و تحقیقات تهران

2 دانشیار دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، گروه جغرافیا و برنامه‎ریزی شهری، واحد تهران مرکز

3 دانشجوی کارشناسی ارشد شهرسازی، دانشگاه هنر تهران

چکیده

در نظام سرمایه‎داری معاصر، شهر به‎عنوان مکان مناسب و شهرنشینی به‎عنوان شیوه‎ی مطلوب زیست در آن به‎شمار می‎آید. رسوخ و نفوذ فرهنگ سرمایه‌داری در جهان سوم، ازجمله ایران، موجب تمرکز شهری ناهمگون و رشد شتابان جمعیّت شهری در اثر مهاجرت گسترده‎ی روستا ـ شهری است. روندی که در حقیقت موجب انتقال جمعیّت عمدتاً فقیر به شهرها می‌شود. نمونه‎ی واضح و مشخّص این‎گونه تقابل را می‌توان در بافت‎های قدیمی و نیز بافت‎های روستایی شهرهای امروزی نظیر شهر کرج مشاهده کرد. شهر کرج نیز از یکسو بنا به موقعیّت مکانی خاصّ خویش، یعنی قرارگیری در مسیر شاهراه ارتباطی غرب کشور و مجاورت شهر تهران و نیز استعدادهای محیطی فوق‌العاده‌اش و داشتن کارخانه‌ها و مناطق صنعتی و از سوی دیگر به‎دلیل روند شهرنشینی شتابان در سطح کشور، تغییر الگوی مصرف جامعه و توسعه‎ی برون‎زای کشور، مورد هجوم گسترده‎ی مهاجران از شهرها و روستاهای اطراف قرار گرفت که پیامد ملموس این هجوم ایجاد بحران شهری و درپی آن، توسعه‎ی فیزیکی شهر و در مقابل تخریب و از بین رفتن باغ‎ها و اراضی کشاورزی در گوشه و کنار شهر است. شهر کرج امروزه با مسائل زیست‎محیطی بسیاری از جمله، وجود کاربری‎ها و فعّالیّت‎های ناسازگار و مزاحم در سطح شهر، توسعه‎ی بیش از حد صنایع در کرج، نبود سیستم دفع فاضلاب شهری، وجود مرکز عظیم دفن زباله‎ها در جنوب شهر و... دست‎به‎گریبان است. در این مقاله وضعیّت ساختار زیست‎محیطی شهر کرج با استفاده تکنیک SWOT مورد ارزیابی قرار گرفته است. با توجّه به یافته‎های پژوهش، از قوّت‎ها و فرصت‎های به‎دست آمده برای غلبه بر ضعف‎ها و تهدیدها به‎درستی استفاده نشده است و ضعف‎ها بر قوّت‎ها و تهدیدها بر فرصت‎ها غالب هستند و نوع راهبرد، راهبرد تنوّعی (اقتضایی) را نشان می‎دهد. در پایان راهبردها بر اساس ماتریس QSPM اولویت‎بندی و پیشنهاد شده است.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Strategies of Environmental Structure City with Approach Urban Sustainable Development (Case Study: City of Karaj)

نویسندگان [English]

  • A. Firouzbakht 1
  • A. Parhizgar 2
  • V. Rabifar 3
چکیده [English]

Extended Abstract

Introduction
Sustainable development and urban sustainable development has converted to a new and dominant paradigm in scientific and theoretical literature that is prevalent about urban development and planning. However, this paradigm has various perceptions and interpretations, but totally emphasize in the stability and continuity of development for public and for future generations, during the time, and a comprehensive view in economic, social and environmental complicated dimensions and the development process in a country and a city (Rahnamee et al. 2005, 178).
Sustainable urbanity or urbanization is a kind of urbanization that it provides a possibility of life, based on human dignity, in present and future, and for subsequent generations and on the other hand, it is compatible with environmental considerations and is environment friendly too. Thus, sustainable urbanization and urbanity advance the urban social- economic development in the way that it leads to protecting the environment and earth resources and it prevent from destructing natural environment. I the other words, sustainable urbanization and urbanity form and develop, based on coordination with the capacity of ecosystem or natural system (Piran, 2008: 201).
Environmental problems are one of the most basic issues of today's city and it is the result of their conflict and contrast with natural environment. Whereas, urban development necessarily is comparison with the dominance if buildings, transport industries and economic activities in the natural spaces, and during the time, this dominance, has changed to the dominance of the city on nature and cause to the widespread urban pollutions. The result of this process will be the unbalance between human and nature and also id disorder in the relations of ecosystem. By developing the cities appearances and values of natural environment has exposed in the more destruction and erosion and citizens have excluded from natural attractions, and psychological and social problems have appeared. The focus of population in cities and urban areas of cities and mismatch between developing services and urban infrastructures, especially in developing countries, converted urban areas to the unsanitary and polluted areas and faced them with the problems of the waste and garbage disposal, providing hygienic water and so on. (Zebardast, 2004: 153-156).

Methodology
Generally, dominant approach of this research is quantitative and qualitative, and the kind of research is "applied research" and the method id descriptive- analytic and data collecting were conducted via accurate library studies and using evidences and documents and field observations and perceptions for data registering, and during it, the environmental structure of Karaj city has studied and then SWOT technique has used, in order to analyze findings. In order to this, internal and external environments of Karaj city studied and then, for completing obtained information, a questionnaire used with statistical population of 25 persons of former and current urban managers, urban researchers and experts, in order to weighting and giving points to the current situation for all of internal factors( threats and opportunities ). And finally QSPM matrix used to prioritizing the strategies and also GIS software used for map production.

Results and Discussion
In contemporary capitalism, the city as an appropriate location and urbanization as a way favorable to the environment is considered. Penetrate and influence the culture of capitalism in the Third World, including Iran Heterogeneous urban concentration caused rapid urban population growth and massive migration of rural - urban. In fact, a process that causes population transfer to the cities is largely poor.
Clear example of such confrontation can be in the old tissues and rural contexts in towns like the city of Karaj being seen today. Karaj one hand, according to the specific location of their placement means of communication route Highway West Country and the vicinity of Tehran and environmental talents and having factories and industrial areas And the other hand, due to rapid urbanization process in the country, changing consumption patterns and develop community exogenous country, the massive influx of refugees from surrounding towns and villages were The tangible outcome of this influx of urban crises created And Following the physical development of cities and the destruction and loss of agricultural land and gardens around the city.Today the city of Karaj, with numerous environmental issues including, for the existence and activities inconsistent and annoying in the city, over industrial development in Karaj, a city sewage disposal system was not, despite the massive landfill in the south of the city center, etc. has been met.
Conclusion
In this paper, Environmental structure the city Karaj of using SWOT techniques have been evaluated. And according to research findings, strengths and opportunities of properly obtained in order to overcome weaknesses and threats are not used. The strengths weaknesses and Threats on the opportunities are dominant. And type of strategy, (contingency) diversity strategies will show. And in the end priorities QSPM matrix based on strategies and is suggested.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • City of Karaj.
  • Environmental Structure
  • Strategy
  • Sustainable Development