سنجش وضعیت توسعۀ کارآفرینی گردشگری در مناطق روستایی (مطالعۀ موردی: روستاهای بخش لاریجان شهرستان آمل)

نوع مقاله: مقاله علمی پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استادیاردانشکدۀ ادبیات و علوم انسانی دانشگاه گیلان

2 استاد و عضو قطب برنامه‌ریزی روستایی، دانشکدۀ جغرافیا دانشگاه تهران

3 دانشیار و عضو قطب برنامه‌ریزی روستایی، دانشکدۀ جغرافیا دانشگاه تهران

4 دانشیار دانشکدۀ علوم اجتماعی دانشگاه الزهرا (س)

چکیده

یکی از ابعاد بسیار مهم نظریه‌های توسعۀ پایدار روستایی، توسعۀ اقتصادی در کنار توسعۀ اجتماعی و اکولوژیک است. در این میان، گردشگری در جوامع روستایی، نقش بسیار مهمی در توسعۀ اقتصادی آن‌ها دارد. یکی از مهم‌ترین عوامل توسعۀ گردشگری در روستاها، توجه به کارآفرینی گردشگری است. بدین‌صورت که کارآفرینی گردشگری، با ایجاد اشتغال، بهبود کیفیت زندگی، توزیع مناسب درآمد و بهره‌برداری بهینه از منابع، نقش مهمی در رشد اقتصادی روستاها و درنتیجه در توسعۀ روستایی دارد. متنوع­سازی اقتصاد روستایی، تنها با القا از بیرون محقق نمی‌شود. کارآفرینان محیط‌های روستایی باید خود فرصت‌ها و منابع بالقوه و بالفعل را بشناسند و با استفادة بهینه از آن‌ها تنوع اشتغال و اقتصاد را برای محیط روستایی به ارمغان بیاورند. از این‌رو، این مطالعه با هدف ارزیابی توسعۀ کارآفرینی در بحث گردشگری روستایی انجام گرفته است. محدودۀ مورد مطالعه شامل روستاهای بخش لاریجان شهرستان آمل در استان مازندران است. روش تحقیق، توصیفی- تحلیلی است. جامعة مورد مطالعه، شامل مشارکت‌کنندگان در فعالیت‌های گردشگری منطقه است که از میان آن­ها 80 نفر به­عنوان نمونه به‌صورت تصادفی انتخاب شدند. مطابق نتایج، شاخص‌های دسترسی به زیرساخت‌های فیزیکی، فضای اجتماعی و میزان اعتمادبه‌نفس، مطلوبیت بالایی در روستاهای مورد مطالعه دارند، اما شاخص‌های دسترسی به آموزش، مشاوره و تجربیات، مهارت و دانش، دسترسی به سرمایه، نوآوری و خلاقیت، آینده‌نگری، تولید، فروش و بازاریابی تولیدات، در وضعیت مناسبی نیستند.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Assessment of tourism entrepreneurship development in rural areas (case study: villages of Larijn)

نویسندگان [English]

  • Mahdi Hesam 1
  • Mohammadreza Rezvani 2
  • Hasanali Faraji Sabokbar 3
  • Sousan Bastani 4
چکیده [English]

Introduction
tourism as one of the most important factors in the development of learning communities are. Achieving the 20 million tourists and generating employment for about 6/5 million people 20 years of consistent vision and perspective Iran 1404, subject to the use of all aspects of the tourist attractions of the country, including in rural areas. Rural tourism as a form of tourism Considering the characteristics, needs, and issues of social, cultural and economic development of local communities, along with tourists called to account, is properly planned and organized, able a major part of economic problems such as unemployment and poverty, reduce rural areas of the country. now tourism have a special place in the economy and an active and effective role in the promotion of economic, social and cultural development, especially in developing countries. In the meantime, today people have become commuter villages to the center of the city to escape the tumultuous life and the life of the car, take a trip to the countryside. In the meantime, today people have become commuter villages to the center of the city to escape the tumultuous life and the life of the car, take a trip to the countryside. Accordingly entrepreneurship in tourism can increase income and employment in rural areas, to prevent migration and rural development. The obvious positive effects of tourism in rural areas can be seen in the increase in business and entrepreneurship. In recent years tourism in rural areas, has spread to many part city of Amol, in Mazandaran province is larijan. In this section, given the proximity to population centers such as Tehran, Mazandaran, Alborz. . . Also located on busy Route Dieters and natural attractions abound, is the destination of many tourists. Therefore, this study sought to assess the state of entrepreneurship in rural're larijan.
Materials and Methods
One of the key areas of research papers, research method research approach that is decisive. This descriptive - analytic survey was conducted. Research is a two part documentary and in the documentary through a library of literature were collected. Little that is included in the field survey to collect data, a questionnaire is. Based on the variables described for measuring the breakdown of rural entrepreneurship concepts defining the scale and source of data collection and data collection questionnaires that participants used tourism activities. Accordingly, the number of 80 villagers were randomly selected to implement the questionnaire.
Results and discussion
Analysis of the mean values of the nine indicators of entrepreneurial climate index indicates low access to education, advice and expertise, skill, knowledge, access to capital, innovation and creativity, foresight, production, sale and marketing of products and high indicators of access to physical infrastructure, social climate, the level of confidence of compliance is tested numerically. According to t-test, one-sample and calculating the amplitude range of between 1 to 5, based on Likert scale fluctuate, the rate for the six indicators mentioned below average condition (3) and 3 index higher than the average is evaluated . The total space of entrepreneurship in rural areas in an acceptable condition is studied. The difference in the level of alpha 0/01 and the difference is significant utility in the form of numerical evaluation and assessment is negative.
The results show that the Friedman test , the mean index for the analysis of alpha level of entrepreneurship in 0/01, there is a significant difference . However, the highest average rank on the availability of physical infrastructure and the lowest available index, education , advice and experiences are. One of the main causes of low dispersion indices such as experience or capital to tourism businesses . ‌ fragmented nature of the tourism sector has been discussed in the academic literature
Conclusion
Tourism growth entrepreneurs and new demands of different types of tourism depends. Rural tourism activities primarily of small businesses. Small companies can often give quick response to the needs of new markets and the introduction of a variety of innovations to be. Characterized small entrepreneurs to fill the gaps. Entrepreneurship in rural tourism rural tourism villages in the north of the country, especially in recent years, can increase employment and income to the rural development. Study area due to its geographical location and proximity to large population centers, and natural properties of rural tourism destinations in the country has become important. Hence this study was to review the status of entrepreneurship. The results show that the index is low access to education and counseling. However, this index is especially important in entrepreneurship, particularly in the tourism sector. The standards of knowledge and skills, access to capital, innovation and creativity in villages than in cities studied, due to lower levels of education, income and capital scarce, so start lower and therefore have to be fit. In this context, support entrepreneurs by providing motivational factors such as financial incentives or support , education and training should be considered . These factors can create entrepreneurs in the early stages of their activities as well as a unique tourism and sustainable tourism can help . However, measures such as access to physical infrastructure , environment and social . . . Live in better conditions . The most favorable situation for rural larijan These measures can be put in a position of strategic relevance to the north of the capital , close to Jmty centers , rural exchanges with surrounding cities , expanded second home tourism is often upper-class are cited. According to the presentation, briefly entrepreneurship in tourism can be said about the origin and nature of entrepreneurship in tourism, entrepreneurship and other economic sectors is different, but in fact necessary for the development of entrepreneurship, such as capital, management training and technology in other industries, the tourism industry can be found more easily. In fact, in today's world, entrepreneurship is one of the most important aspects of tourism which will be increasingly important.
Keywords: rural development, entrepreneurship development, rural tourism, larijan

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Rural Development
  • Entrepreneurship Development
  • Rural
  • Tourism
  • larijan
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