عنوان مقاله [English]
Although there are a number of studies about slum and informal settlements, yet they are the most important issue for social researchers. And the importance of the issue in strategic procedure made the researchers to have more studies. These places, particularly in developing countries where it spatial distribution of urban population within a comprehensive program based on sectoral and regional coordination is has been not done, the city has created a series of problems for a broad. Hence No one can deny the micro and macro informal settlements effects on their city especially from systematic and comprehensive planning point of view. It’s a challenging issue for urban management and security of city; therefore this study investigates different dominations of informal settlements in Mahabad city.
This study is applied and it,s research Methodology is descriptive - analytical and field. Therefore after a review of concepts and principles related to the research topic to study, field data collection are used of method (direct observation, interviews with citizens). In This study, the Mahabad city in a range of research have been studies and in first step is to identify and review the status of informal settlements, were identified list from informal settlements. In the second step, obtained 384 questionnaires by sampling Cochran, were distributed a random sampling of people over 15 years old population (residents HashyhNshyn neighborhoods in the city of Mahabad). In the third step with regard to current problems is presented to solve the problems of the wider strategic documents this neighborhood, in order to study the city development strategy (CDS).
Results and discussion
In this study, it was found that 5/77% of heads of households in the suburb of Mahabad, was born in the village. The majority of this people are rural migrants. Important point, only 6/1 percent of these individuals were born in villages outside the Kord areas. Perhaps part of this people also have migrated from other cities that are not part of the West Azarbaijan Province, to the Mahabad city. So more than 4/98% of the inhabitants of marginal areas Mahabad are Kord. This confirms that the direction of migration in the Mahabad city, mainly is within the province. Also, preliminary studies of informal settlements situation in the Mahabad city show that near the village to the city, the lack of adequate farmland around Mahabad, destroying gardens, overpopulation and the inability objective carriers of agricultural and livestock to feed their families, along with internal internal wars of revolution, is accelerated the migration. According to previous field studies have been conducted and documents in relation to informal settlements in urban areas in the chaotic Mahabad city, including three in East and South-East and North main area of the city. Northern Zone, which is a small part spots of the district that are included SaJohn abad. South zone includes districts Posht Tap, Shayeganfar garden, Connie Sufi Taha, and Connie Mom Qanbaran. The eastern zone includes neighborhoods in the municipality, university dormitories and dormitory workers. The area together with the south side of the city as a zone of accommodation is highly problematic in terms of the parameters examined (physical, economic and social) that are all indicators, very fragile, and it is an area of 188 hectares, which is 95/13 percent of the area city of 28,606 people living in the zone that is included 21.7 percent of the population.
The results of the analysis of the data indicated that the major part of the the population 11 Foundation marginalized areas of the Mahabad city, classes are a poor economic situation. So that at least 35 percent of households headed include illiterate or have studied of the primary education level. Also the results of the informal settlements which are the main subject of this study that Show extensive abnormalities in several aspects of the city's informal settlements surround the dense texture of urban infrastructure, disorganized and illegible due to the development of the grows and urban development in areas such as Ashabh white, posh tap, Sanjan abad, kani sufi Rashid, kani Sufi Taha, the extremely low quality in terms of the view and prospect. High Population, high family size, inefficiency of surface water disposal system, inappropriate materials and less durable, high levels of occupancy of the building, small parts of housing etc, the most important features of it. settlements of chaotic Mahabad city, including several zones in the South, the East and North East of Mahabad. More than 30 percent of the settlements are built on slopes over 15 percent. This area in total include 11 points, have 286.62 hectares and encompass the 45,784 people in its place. Information and advice impressions indicate the status of these areas is critical. So that capita the park in this area is 5 cm per person, capita medical, 1 cm office capita , 4 cm, and educational capita 26 cm. Population density in the area is 235 person. More than 25 percent of the residential block, destruction and have been built the materials short-lived. Statistics and withdrawal of consultant social indicate that the majority of residents are rural migrants, as 71 percent of household heads were born in the village. 34.63 percent of male dropouts comprise of men, the percentage of families with children leave school record 54.49 percent. This figure among girls with 55.11 percent. traditional extended families are included less than 7 percent of households . But the new extended families whose children are married to afford the formation of an independent life, 22.5 percent of households included in the past. Economic indicators indicate the extent of employment in elementary occupations among heads of households. Collection of statistics on informal settlements in the Mahabad city disorganized habitations under the name ID of issues such as social, physical, etc were categorized.