مهاجـــرت و اثــرات آن بــر ساخـتار کشاورزی (مطالعۀ موردی: بخش مرکزی شهرستان سردشت)

نوع مقاله: مقاله علمی پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، واحد سردشت (ارومیه)، باشگاه پژوهشگران جوان و نخبگان، سردشت (ارومیه)، ایران

2 دانشیار گروه جغرافیا و برنامه‌ریزی روستایی، دانشگاه تربیت مدرس، تهران، ایران

چکیده

کشاورزی یکی از مهم‌ترین بخش‌های اقتصادی است که از جهت تولید مواد غذایی و محصولات کشاورزی صنعتی، نقش بسیار مهمی در توسعۀ اقتصادی ایفا می­کند. در این راستا نقش نیروی انسانی اهمیت بسیار دارد؛ به‌طوری‌که تغییرات کمی و کیفی نیروی انسانی و سرمایۀ انسانی، به تغییرات عمده در تولید محصولات کشاورزی منجر می­شود و بر بهره‌وری کشاورزی کاملاً اثرگذار است. این پژوهش، با رویکردی توصیفی- تحلیلی است و با مطالعات اسنادی و نیز برداشت‌های میدانی و پیمایشی انجام شده است. جامعة آماری پژوهش شامل 169 روستای بخش مرکزی شهرستان سردشت است که به روش خوشه‌ای مکانی و به شیوۀ تصادفی ساده، از میان آن‌ها 32 روستا به‌عنوان نمونۀ آماری انتخاب شدند. تجزیه و تحلیل داده‌ها با نرم‌افزار SPSS انجام گرفت. مطابق نتایج، مهاجرت مهم‌ترین عامل تغییر جمعیت است که آثار آن به‌صورت تغییر ساختار شغلی در بخش کشاورزی نمایان می‌شود. همچنین نتایج نشان می‌دهد در دورۀ مورد مطالعه، میزان اشتغال در بخش کشاورزی کاهش یافته و در دیگر بخش‌های اقتصادی افزایش یافته است. نتایج آزمون تی نیز نشانگر آن است که تغییرات جمعیتی منطقه، در میان ساختارهای کشاورزی، بیشترین تأثیر را بر ساختار شغلی بخش کشاورزی ایجاد کرده است. بررسی ارتباط میان مهاجرت و نهاده‌های کشاورزی نیز نشان می­دهد افزایش سرمایه، نیروی کار و سطح سواد موجب کاهش مهاجرت و افزایش سطح زیر کشت و افزایش ماشین‌آلات سبب افزایش مهاجرت می‌شود.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Emigration and its Effects on Agricultural Structure (Case Study: the Central Sector of Sardasht Township)

نویسندگان [English]

  • shirko ahmadi 1
  • Mortaza Tavakoli 2
چکیده [English]

Abstract
Agriculture is considered as one of the important sectors of economic. That in the production of food and industrial crops may play an important role in economic development. In this regard human resource is very important. So that quantitative and qualitative changes in the human resources can lead to major changes in agricultural production and it influences completely agricultural productivity. This research has done by descriptive analytical approach and according to documentary Studies and survey and field studies. The population of the research is 169 villages in central part of city Sardasht. That among them 32 villages as statistical sample was selected randomly and by spatial clustering method. And the data were analyzed by SPSS/forWin19.0 software. The results showed that migration is a major factor in population changes that has effects on changes in the structure of employment in agriculture. Also results showed that in the section under study the rate of employment in the agriculture section was reduced and in the other economic sections is increased in the under studying region.
Also the results of T-test showed that population changes in the region had create the most changes on job structures of agriculture .the review between the relationship between migration and agricultural inputs showed that capital increasing, labor force and literacy causes to reduce migration and elements such as increasing the area under cultivation and machines lead to migration increase.

Introduction
Each country's economic status depends on the performance of economic sectors such as agriculture, industry and services. Appropriate performance is archived in light of the optimal combination of productive resources and increased productivity. One of the main causes of population change is migration. And it can create the rapid and short-term effects in the number and structure of population in addition long term changes and causes to balance and imbalance in community population structure.
Human resource development is closely related to population changes. In other words migration is like double-edged sword and can improve the micro and macro levels of society if moves in the proper way otherwise has adverse impacts to society. Population changes that is measured by indexes of population growth, pure rate of migration and mortality rates whilst itself plays an important role in sustainable development it effects on process of human capital accumulation and sustainable development of agriculture by factors such as change in family income and possibility of migration and education caused by surplus income or other factors. That among these factors migration plays an important role and is very tangible. According to above material the current study is looking for this answer: Changes in the rural population, especially immigrants, what effect it will have on the agricultural sector?

Methodology
The kind of the current study is development studies that is using from descriptive analytic method. The review of field studies has been done through a survey research method in sample villages. The data population of the research consists of 169 villages in the villages of the central division. And in the sample volume of this research 32 villages were selected randomly and by cluster sampling method. The data collected were analyzed by SPSS software. Descriptive and inferential statistics and regression coefficient were used a data analyzing. The main variables in this study are demographic changes in immigration as independent variable and agricultural components as dependent variable were tested. In this research also has used of different models to migration and employment estimates.

Results and discussion
According to the results the migration rate is as follows that this rate is changing from -5/68 amount for KhreAghalan village to 5/07 amount for Niskave village. According to results these villages had the most migrate sender and the most immigrant receiver respectively. So that KhreAghalan village during the study period constantly has enjoyed from reduction and descending process. The average total immigrants arrived in the village in the beginning of the period is 59/58 people that this amount has reached to 61/5 people in the years of ending period. Also coefficient of variability of the villages at the beginning of period is 0/87 percent and in the end of the period the number of entered immigrants is 0/98. The average total out-migrants in each village until the beginning of the study period is 37/37 people. That this amount has reached to 61/87 in the final years of the period. In the begging years of the period coefficient of variation is 0/87 percent and in the end of the period the number of migrants logged, is 0/98.also it can be concluded from data analyzing about agriculture that firstly increased employment in the agricultural sector in rural areas is low at the end of the period and due to expansion of services the agriculture section is lower. Second, the share of agricultural employment in the study area has been declining.

Conclusion
Migration as one of the variables of changes in agricultural structures has a meaningful relation with component of agricultural structure. The results indicate that migration has a significant positive effect on ownership change and 1% increase in migration can cause to 59% increase in ownership change. The relationship between mortality and employment in rural areas under studying has a significant and reverse relationship with -0/57.also according to the linear regression equation 1% increase in mortality can cause to 0/57 percent reduction in regional employment structure. Also T-test was used for both variable immigration and employment structure showed that regression coefficient is significant and its expected sign is negative As a result, there is a significant inverse relationship between these two variables. So that among the agriculture structures migration has the most effect on employment structure.
The regression coefficient was calculated for it -/78 that is showing that 1% increase in migration can cause to 0/78 reduction in employment of the region.
The review relationship between migration and agricultural employment showed that capital increase, manpower and literacy cause to reduce migration and increase cultivation and machines cause to increase migration. Therefore, it is suggested to prevent rural migration to urban areas, rural development process be accelerated.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • "Emigration"
  • "agricultural structure"
  • "population"
  • "Sardasht city"
  • "Central part"

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