نوع مقاله : مقاله علمی پژوهشی
1 دانشیار گروه کارتوگرافی دانشگاه تهران
2 دانش آموخته کارشناسی ارشد رشته سنجش از دور و سیستم اطلاعات جغرافیایی، دانشکده جغرافیا، دانشگاه تهران
3 استاد گروه کارتوگرافی دانشگاه تهران
4 استاد گروه جغرافیای انسانی دانشگاه تهران
عنوان مقاله [English]
Today is the world of information and its optimal uses (Davies, 2003). Information, doubtless, as the most important tools for managers and executive decision-makerscan play a significant role in solving the problems and meeting the needs (Warnest, 2005). Spatial data are discussed as one of the most sensitive and important factors in decision-making and planning in many organizations, particularly municipalities (Aghanejhad, 2009). Despite of the importance of management information systems (MIS) using in decision-making processes, but it is neglected in urban management of small and middle size cities in our country. Currently, the information management system in the municipalities of the mentioned cities follows from traditional system and increasingly large amounts of data are collected and stored. Applying this method not only takes many times and costs, but it is always difficult to make analyze the data and achieve the desired results (Ghadami & et al, 2013). In this regard, in recent decade’s development of SDI as a central driving force in spatial data management has been emerged. More than half the world’s countries claim that they are involved in some form of SDI development (Mansourian and et al, 2008b: 377). SDI is a framework for linking users with providers of spatial information. SDI comprises the people, policies and technologies necessary to enable the use of spatially referenced data through all levels of government, the private sector, non-profit organizations and academia (Vandenbroucke and et al, 2009& Mohammadi, 2008). Spatial data infrastructure is trying to establish an environment that in which all spatial data producers through partnership and cooperation with each other and optimum use of existing technology, produce the information layers that needed in governmental and non- governmental sectors and through sharing them, provide the accessibility and using them to a wide range of users. It is obvious that if such a mechanism is developed and implemented in cities, organizations that responsible for producing the data, act coordinated with each other, and with preventing parallel in producing the same data, cost, time and effort to develop and maintain a lot of data will be preserved (Heydary, 2009). So the aim of this paper is assessment and capacity studding of the Babolsar’s municipality from the view point of the implementation and development of local spatial data infrastructures from the technical, social and information aspects. In other words this study seeks to answer the following questions: How is the conditions for the implementation of the local Spatial Data Infrastructure in Babolsar municipality? Or what (strengths and weaknesses) does the municipality of Babolsar have in order to realize spatial data infrastructure?
This paper was conducted by description– analytic research method based on using staffs interview and expert checklist. Babolsar’s municipality is the population of this research, and the Samples was selected from important units which has an effective role in the implementation and development of SDI. In this regard, also, Liberian study and investigating the existing documents has been used. In order to study and assessment of Babolsar’s municipality, from the view point of the implementation and development of local SDI, conceptual model of national SDI, which developed according to Rajabifard and Williamson’s model (2001) is used. In the process of data collection which has done through interview with staffs and experts, the item that has been investigated included in following parameters: Investigation the tasks and functions of each units, existing situation of spatial and non- spatial data in municipalities units, surveying the information flow, investigating the standards used for spatial and non-spatial data, surveying the condition of producing and using from metadata, investigating the condition of sharing the information between different units and other urban organizations, assessment of the information quality control mechanisms, network facilities, personnel capabilities, investigating the cultural issues of producing, sharing and using the information, and surveying the technology level. Finally, collected information is analyzed based on tow component: data and organization.
Results and discussion
The results show, the case municipality in order to implementing and developing of the SDI is faced with very important challenges that suffers from serious weaknesses. Some of weaknesses are inflexibility, security, data processing and analysis, data management system, structure of database as well as outputs. Lack of awareness, culture and perception of the main custodians of production and use of spatial data in the municipality and the lack of specified policies and instructions of data producing and related metadata and data and metadata standardization; updating data and related metadata, storage and backup, displaying, sharing and analyzing data; also instructions for data quality control, lack of finance resource and defined budget in municipality’s mid and longtime plans are the key challenges of the Bobolar’s municipality in order to implementation and development of local spatial data infrastructure.
However, existing the High motivation in organizational Level and some experts in a few units in order to provide take advantage of the GIS in the municipal units; existing required technical conditions and communication infrastructures and computer equipment in order to cooperation, sharing between all units that has a critical function in the SDI are the main strengths in regards to SDI’s initiation and development.
Literature findings shows that before initiation of the GIS, defining and designing of the SDI should be implemented, because continuing this process will lead to following outcomes: lack of organization efficiency, arbitrary decision makings, and lack of reliance on the present situation information in decision makings, accumulation of large amounts of raw data without any processing operations, need the more physical space to store paper based documents, the lack of information sharing between other urban organizations and municipality, shelving the municipal revenue resource. Urban management always is facing with an increasing diverse information from the city and citizenship. Except facing with serious challenges in decision-making and planning in future, a promising situation cannot be imagined by ignoring the ineffectiveness of conventional and paper-based systems of information technology in confronting with rapid global and national revolutions.
Spatial Data Infrastructure (SDI), Municipality, Information Management, GIS, Babolsar.