مروری انتقادی بر دوره‌بندی‌های انجام‌گرفته از اندیشه و عمل ژئوپلیتیکی و ارائۀ یک دوره‌بندی جدید

نوع مقاله: مقاله علمی پژوهشی

نویسنده

استادیار جغرافیای سیاسی، گروه جغرافیا، دانشگاه بیرجند

چکیده

قدمت واژة ژئوپلیتیک و دانش آن به‌خصوص در بعد نظری، اندکی فراتر از یازده دهه است، اما ریشۀ اندیشه و عمل ژئوپلیتیکی، به قلمروخواهی، قلمروسازی، قلمروداری و قلمروگستری انسان و جست­وجوی وی برای تأمین امنیت خود و قلمروش برمی‌گردد. بیشتر صاحب‌نظران جغرافیای سیاسی و ژئوپلیتیک، بر تاریخی­بودن اندیشه و عمل ژئوپلیتیکی اذعان دارند، اما اتفاق­نظری در تعریف ژئوپلیتیک و دوره‌بندی‌های انجام­گرفته از اندیشه و عمل ژئوپلیتیکی وجود ندارد. در این پژوهش، به روش توصیفی- تحلیلی و مقایسه‌ای، به بررسی انتقادی این دوره‌بندی‌ها پرداخته می­شود. با بررسی این دوره‌بندی‌ها و با توجه به نقاط عطف و فصول افتراق آن‌ها، تمامی دوره‌بندی‌ها در دو دستة کلی گنجانده شدند: 1. دوره‌بندی‌های تاریخی از اندیشه و عمل ژئوپلیتیکی و 2. دوره‌بندی‌های معطوف به تاریخچة علم ژئوپلیتیک. مهم‌ترین ضعف این دوره‌بندی‌ها، نقص و نارسایی آن‌ها در پوششی کامل و تاریخی از اندیشه و عمل ژئوپلیتیکی در دوره‌های مختلف است. البته بعضی از این دوره‌بندی‌ها نیز منحصر به یک بعد ژئوپلیتیک (عمدتاً بعد نظری) یا تاریخ علم ژئوپلیتیک هستند. با واکاوی این دوره‌بندی‌ها و بررسی قوت­ها و ضعف­های آن­ها، یک دوره‌بندی جدید ارائه شد که ضمن جامعیت برای دربرگرفتن تمامی دوره‌بندی‌های قبلی، ابعاد مختلف ژئوپلیتیک را نیز دربرگیرد. در دوره‌بندی پیشنهادی، اندیشه و عمل ژئوپلیتیکی به سه دورة پیشامدرن، مدرن و پسامدرن تقسیم شده است.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Rethinking the Periodic categorization of Geopolitical thought and practice and proposing a new classification

نویسنده [English]

  • omran rasti
Assistant Proffesor of Political Geograghy
چکیده [English]

Introduction
Geopolitics is a word that conjures up images. In one sense, the word provokes ideas of war, empire, and diplomacy: geopolitics is the practice of states controlling and competing for territory. Geopolitics had a history before the term itself came in to use in 1899 by Swede Rudolf Kjellen. It is apparent that many of great figures in the history of political thought, from the ancient Greeks Aristotle and Thucydides to the early modern Florentine Machiavelli and later writer such as Hobbes, Locke, Montesquieu, Turgot, Madison, Rousseau, Hegel and Marx, had ideas about political territoriality and effects of Geographical location and access to resources on conflict and war that can be regarded as basic elements of Geopolitics & Political Geography.
Many of Geopolitics scholars believe that thought and practice of Geopolitics have a long history. However, the science of Geopolitics is relatively new, and its history from 115 years ago until now (2014) has been full of ups and downs. There is no consensus among scholars about the definition of this science although different definitions have been proposed so far. Based on these definitions, the knowledge and practice of Geopolitics have different eras.


Methodology

This research, which is fundamental, was done by using descriptive-analytic method. Different resources and papers related to Geopolitics were studied and different Periodic categorization of thought and practice of Geopolitics were extracted and investigated. The investigation of these Periodic categorization indicated that the emergence of the word Geopolitics was a turning point that differentiated different Periodic categorization of Geopolitics: (1) Historical Periodic categorization of thought and practice of Geopolitics (2) Periodic categorizations related to the formal history of Geopolitics sciences.
Result and discussion
The term of Geopolitics was first used by the Swede Rudolf Kjellen in 1899, and The term of Political Geography was first used by the French Turgot though these have older roots. This is so despite the best efforts of international relations theorists to find it in the Greece of Thucydides or the Italy of Machiavelli. In other word The roots of thought and practice of Geopolitics was articulated by the philosopher Aristotle in ancient Greece in the third century BC. The Greek philosopher Aristotle developed his theory of the city state in about 350 BC in his book, Politics.
different Periodic categorization have been offered from thought and practice of Geopolitics. for example Agnew shown that how three specific epochs or eras of Geopolitics developed over the period from the early nineteenth century to the 1980s: T first period the early nineteenth century(1815–75); second, (1875- 1945) and third, (1945- 1990). the three discourses or modes of representation he discusses are referred to as Civilizational Geopolitics, naturalized Geopolitics and ideological Geopolitics. other example is Modelski’s model. Modelski’s model of world leadership is dynamic. The strength of the world leader rises and falls. Over the course of centuries, the mantle of world leadership has passed from one country to another in a sequence of cycles of world leadership. Each cycle of world leadership lasts approximately 100 years. Modelski’s Cycles of world leadership consist of: Portugal 1500s; Netherlands 1600s; Great Britain 1700s; Great Britain 1800s; United States 1900s. Power, in the model, is about strength and dominance, it is about the ability to exercise military force across the globe. For people such as Martin Jones and others the history of Geopolitics and Political Geography as academic sub-discipline can be roughly divided into three eras and era of ascendancy from the late nineteenth century to the World War II; an era of marginalization from the 1940s to the 1970s; and an era of revival from the late 1970s onwards.
The investigation of these Periodic categorization indicated that the emergence of the word Geopolitics was a turning point that differentiated different Periodic categorization of Geopolitics: (1) Historical Periodic categorization of thought and practice of Geopolitics (2) Periodic categorizations related to the formal history of Geopolitics sciences. Considering the negative and positive points of different Periodic categorization, we offer a comprehensive Periodic framework of the thought and practice of Geopolitics. This framework is comprehensive and includes all previous areas and different aspects of geopolitics. In the proposed framework the thought and practice of Geopolitics have been divided into three eras: pre-modernism, modern Geopolitics, and post-modern geopolitics.


Conclusion
Although the word geopolitics was only coined in the early years of the twentieth century, applied geopolitics has been practiced from time immemorial by those seeking to extend their political power and influence across the globe. In other word in practical terms, Geopolitics must be as old as the quest for territory and security, as old as diplomacy, strategy, envy and fear. Alexander the great must have indulged in Geopolitical scheming so must Napoleon and many other commanders, conquerors and emperors.
Each of two Periodic categorizations (Historical Periodic categorization of thought and practice of Geopolitics & Periodic categorizations related to the formal history of Geopolitics sciences), has negative and positive points. Also, there are many commonalities and differences among these Periodic categorizations. Considering the negative and positive points of different Periodic categorization, we offer a comprehensive Periodic framework of the thought and practice of Geopolitics. This framework is comprehensive and includes all previous areas and different aspects of geopolitics. In the proposed framework the thought and practice of Geopolitics have been divided into three eras: pre-modernism, modern Geopolitics, and post-modern geopolitics.
Today geopolitics is no longer exclusively the preserve of a privileged male elite who used the authority of their academic position to frame policy for a particular country. Though these publications still exist (for example see the discussions of Samuel Huntington and Robert Kaplan), most academics who say they study geopolitics are describing the situation of those who are marginalized, and advocating a change in their situation. Study of the state is often critical, but it just one component of a complicated world—rather than a political unit with the freedom to act as the theory suggests it should in a simplified and understandable world

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Geopolitics
  • Thought and Practice of Geopolitics
  • Geopolitical Periodic
  • science of geopolitics
  • new categorization
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