الگوی فضایی مشارکت در انتخابات ریاست‌جمهوری (مطالعۀ موردی: دهمین و یازدهمین انتخابات ریاست‌جمهوری استان خراسان جنوبی)

نوع مقاله: مقاله علمی پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری جغرافیای سیاسی دانشگاه تربیت‌مدرس

2 استادیار جغرافیای سیاسی دانشگاه بیرجند

3 استادیار جغرافیای سیاسی دانشگاه تهران

چکیده

مشارکت ملی افراد جامعه در زمینه‌های سیاسی، اقتصادی و... ، اساس مشروعیت نظام‌های سیاسی است. در این میان، نهاد انتخابات، مهم‌ترین ابزار تحقق مشارکت سیاسی برای شکل‌گیری مردم‌سالاری در حکومت‌های ملی است.انتخابات، یکی از مسائل مطرح در جغرافیای سیاسی است که با عنوان جغرافیای انتخابات بررسی می‌شود. با پیروزی انقلاب اسلامی، زمینۀ مشارکت مردم در سرنوشت سیاسی کشور بیش‌ازپیش فراهم شد. انتخابات ریاست­جمهوری در کشور ما، با توجه به نقش دولت در زندگی مردم، جزء مهم‌ترین انتخابات­ها به­شمار می‌آید. در این پژوهش، با رویکردی توصیفی- تحلیلی، میزان مشارکت استان خراسان جنوبی در مقایسه با کل کشور، طی یازده دوره انتخابات ریاست‌جمهوری بررسی می­شود و سپس به تحلیل فضایی انتخابات دوره‌های دهم و یازدهم، به­تفکیک آرای کاندیداها، در سطح شهرستان‌ها پرداخته می­شود. این پژوهش به این سؤال اساسی پاسخ می­دهد که روند مشارکت در این استان طی دوره‌های انتخاباتی (به­ویژه از سال 1383 پس از تقسیم خراسان بزرگ به سه استان) با توجه به موقعیت ژئوپلیتیکی آن در نوار مرزی شرق کشور، چگونه بوده است. مطابق نتایج، علی‌رغم اینکه خراسان جنوبی یک استان مرزنشین است، روند مشارکت بالایی را در دوره­های انتخابات ریاست‌جمهوری داشته است؛ به‌گونه‌ای­که در یازدهمین دورۀ انتخابات ریاست‌جمهوری، با 93 درصد شرکت در انتخابات، بیشترین مشارکت را در سطح کشور به خود اختصاص داده است.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Spatial pattern of participation in presidential election Case study: Tenth and Eleventh of the presidential election in South Khorasan province

نویسندگان [English]

  • Esmaeil Alamdar 1
  • Omran Rasti 2
  • Seyed Abbas Ahmadi 3
چکیده [English]

Spatial pattern of participation in presidential election

Case study: Tenth and Eleventh of the presidential election in South Khorasan province
Introduction
"political participation" is one way to influence the affairs of the country. Political participation, including voluntary activities by people to influence public policy. This effect can be selected directly with a person who is a policy vote These include are, for example, contribute to a political campaign, a donation to a candidate, contact or officials, protests and ... The presence of people in general elections to elect one or several persons in order to give their own destiny to them for a certain period of time indicates the sensitivity of people to their future. The geography of elections deals with the geographic aspects of elections, referenda, their organization, and especially its results; and investigate the economic, cultural etc. conditions in various levels locally, regionally and nationally. The elections are geographically affected by different parameters, which these elements in turn, have an influence on the extent of political participation of people and their voting behavior. In the IRI regime 33 elections have been held including the constitutional referendum, the Assembly of Experts, Presidency, Islamic Consultative Assembly, and town and village councils. Iran is considered as one of the most democratic political regimes in the world system. South Khorasan province has had a high level of participation in the elections since the beginning of the Islamic Revolution. Although this level of participation was not very significant prior to the separation of the three provinces, the massive presence at the ballot boxes since 1383 (the division of the Great Khorasan into the three provinces) is visibly shown. In this study, the level of participation by the people of Southern Khorasan Province in eleven presidential election periods will be discussed in comparison to the whole country.
Methodology
This study is documentarily conducted with a descriptive – analytical method, based on data and statistics obtained from the Ministry of Interior and the governor's office that deals with the comparative study of participation level in South Khorasan province, with a national average in the eleven presidential election periods. Thus, first the level of participation by the people of the province in the 11 periods is discussed and then, the provincial and national participation level is displayed in the form of combined charts and tables. At the end, specifically the participation level in the tenth and eleventh period of the presidential elections, considering each city of the province, has been discussed and analyzed by drawing the GIS tables.
Results and discussion
As an indicator of the level of citizen participation in the electoral legitimacy of the political system in many countries. Governments insist on the maximum number of people in the elections. A government that can attract maximum participation in the elections not only in domestic but also in the international arena can also have a strong position. With the victory of the Islamic Revolution and the people involved in the political arena through the numerous fields provided. In our country during the 33 presidential elections held in 11 election belongs. In each period, commensurate with the increase in population and the population of legal age to vote, the vote generally increased compared to the previous period. Turnout in the presidential election is more than three other elections. The problem with this analysis can be further noted that the role of the President of Parliament, the Council and the current fate of their village and experts. As a result of their participation in this type of election. Ferdows largest city in the tenth presidential election participation than any other city with 98/3 in its place. This suggests paying special attention to the fate of the people of this city and their country. On the other hand Nehbandan city with the participation of the rest of the city 81/3 percent had the lowest participation. Which can be edgy and the lowest degree of development than any other city in the province of the reasons cited lower contributions. The rate of participation in the eleventh presidential election in South Khorasan province has been very high. In the cities of Sarbishe and Khoosf maximum participation and Birjand lowest participation among in the province.
Conclusion
The percentage of participation in the presidential elections in Iran, and therefore in South Khorasan province is high. This indicates the confidence of the country's people to the existing governance system and hope for creating better situations in the country from different dimensions. In this study the geography of the presidential election took place in South Khorasan province, it was found that most of the studies are always political geography of the land as undeveloped, isolated and divergent mentioned in elections recent partnerships have obvious.Although the average percentage of the country's participation level in the eleventh period compared to the tenth period of presidential elections decreased by 12 percent, the political participation of people in three presidential election periods, shows a clear upward trend. So that the participation of 75.5% in the elections of the year 1384, has increased to the participation of 93 percent in the elections of the year 1392. In addition, the results of votes' examination collected by the elected in the tenth and eleventh period of the presidential elections in South Khorasan province, indicated that Mr. Ahmadinejad with 77% of the total votes in the tenth period, and Mr. Rouhani with 44.5% of the total votes in the province, were elected. Finally, it can be acknowledged that the pattern of electoral behavior in the people of the province as the country is due to the traditional views of the past including ideological values, sense of place and region and ethnicity, and is only in the metropolises.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Keywords: Spatial pattern of participation
  • The geography of elections
  • comparative analysis
  • Tenth and Eleventh of the presidential election
  • South Khorasan Province

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