تحلیل آثار سیاست‌های جهانی بر غیررسمی‌شدن فضای شهری (مطالعه موردی: کشورهای جنوب)

نوع مقاله: مقاله علمی پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشیار برنامه‌ریزی شهری دانشگاه خوارزمی

2 استادیار برنامه‌ریزی شهری دانشگاه تربیت‌مدرس

3 دانشیار برنامه‌ریزی منطقه‌ای دانشگاه علامه طباطبائی

4 دکتری برنامه‌ریزی شهری دانشگاه خوارزمی

چکیده

با وجود سیاسی‌بودن تصمیم‌‌گیری برای برنامه‌ریزی از سوی بسیاری از متفکران معاصر، توجه کمی به درک روابط میان رهیافت‌های برنامه‌ریزی و گفتمان‌ها یا نظریه‌های سیاسی جهانی شده است. اهمیت امر به این دلیل است که آزمون تفکر سیاسی در رهیافت‌های مختلف برنامه‌ریزی می‌تواند روش‌ها و منافع سیاسی نهفته در فرایند برنامه‌ریزی را روشن کند. در مقالة تحلیلی-مفهومی حاضر، تأثیر گفتمان‌های مختلف توسعه و برنامه‌ریزی از جمله جهانی‌شدن، نئولیبرالیسم و دموکراسی در شکل‌گیری فضا و اجتماعات غیررسمی در کشورهای جنوب بررسی شده است. براساس تحلیل تجارب این کشورها، فرایندهای جهانی در کشورهای مختلف به اشکال متفاوتی بروز یافته است؛ به‌طوری‌که فضای کشورهای جنوب به‌دلیل استعمار و جنگ و کشمکش سیاسی زمینة مناسبی برای تحقق فضای جریان‌های جهانی نبوده و به غیررسمی‌شدن فضا انجامیده است. همچنین بازارهای غیررسمی زمین و مسکن تنها در حوزة فقرا نبوده و این امر عرصة رقابت طبقة متوسط حتی نخبگان شهرهای جهان سوم را نیز فراهم کرده است. افزون بر این، در این کشورها مسئلة رسمی و غیررسمی مطرح نیست، بلکه تمایز میان غیررسمی‌شدن فقرا و طبقة متوسط مطرح است، اما در هر دو شکل، مکان این غیررسمی‌شدن در مناطق پیراشهری است. همچنین دیدگاه حق به شهر می‌تواند به‌عنوان رویکردی بهینه برای توجه به حقوق و چالش‌های گروه‌های فرودست در زمینة شهری غیررسمی مدنظر قرار بگیرد.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Analysis of Global Policies Impact upon Informalization of Urban Spaces :the South Countries

نویسندگان [English]

  • Mohammad Soleimani 1
  • Abolfazl Meshkini 2
  • Mohammad Sheikhi 3
  • Elham Amirhajlo 4
1 Associate professor of Urban Planning, Kharazmi University
2 Associate professor of Urban Planning, Kharazmi University
چکیده [English]

In spite of political characteristic of planning decisions from many contemporary thinkers, a few attempt carried out to establish relations between global planning strategies and political theories. It is important that the test of political thought in various planning strategies can make clear hidden political interests and methods in planning process. Until now, different policies and strategies have taken by governments in the South countries for encountering with informal settlements and their residential societies that formation, decline and stability of them are related to establish various dialogue for development and planning such as globalization, neo-liberalization, structural adjustment policies and democracy.
Methodology
Method of this research is analytical and it has based on realistic analysis on recognition of the nature and mechanisms of the phenomenon of informalization of space and has used documentary research. In this analysis, the phenomenon of informalization of space occurs based on interactions of individuals and groups (government, local leaders and people) and decisions and their motivations in terms of strategies and tactics in dealing with global currents. At the macro level political and economic policies of governments and circumstances southern states such as political concentration, political instability, war, conflict, colonization and political confusion in relation to global processes like as globalization, neo-liberalism and structural adjustment policies and democracy, in middle level, actions and reactions and decision making of state and various stakeholders resulted by process of macro level that has social and spatial effects and circumstances in micro level.
Results and discussion
As understood urban planning has failed to produce urban space. In recognition of the failure of the government to make urban spaces, ordinary people have potential to generate their desirable urban spaces by creative spatial practices. Experience has shown that among and between of the official planners, ordinary people towards the authorities and professionals tend to produce variations and differences rather than homogeneous spaces. Ordinary people have the ability to produce lived spaces out of abstract spaces via adaptation and extending spaces for their daily cultural activities and practices. Definitely, it seems that state has not sufficient ability and liability to regulate urban space and forced urban residents to use their liabilities in shaping urban space by creating networks, coalitions and associations. With emphasis on the role of the alliance as a space practice in the production of urban space, we can say "spatial practices for various hidden forces that can distract homogeneous space towards their own goals, product a dramatized space that is lived space of residents in informal settlements. Thus, in relation to the production of space, it can be argued that neoliberal ideology has changed perception of urban space because people in peri-urban areas look for places for the now and future investment. In addition to, reducing the role of government in providing land and housing shows that poor people for affordable access to land for housing continue to struggle. Finally, this process leads to disputes over urban space. In fact, globalization intensifies competition for urban land. First, when demand is rapidly increasing, urban land is became scarce. On the other hand, a large percentage of urban migrants have been absorbed that created due to the new economic opportunities by globalization, cannot pay the price of urban land. In such circumstances, they have no option except to use their own initiative to have access to urban land, which finally have been lead to competition for urban land with government officials. In this regard, urban residents use their own everyday strategies although are not limited to informal land tenure, as the tools for access to land, they organize themselves in alliance to bargaining because they often have been completely excluded urban decision processes and lobbying on competitive urban land. On the other hand, the involvement of government officials have attempted to control competition corruption, self-help housing, evictions and spatial development as spatial strategies of urban space.
Conclusion
In studying of experiences of countries, these have basic importance: first, global processes have found out different forms in different countries; as space of the Southern have not been appropriate background to realize spaces of global flows due to colonization, war and political conflicts and resulted in informalization of space. Second, informal land and housing markets, not only in scopes of the poor but also in competition arena of the middle class even elite competition in the Third World is provided. Third, in these countries, the problem is not formal and informal, but is the distinction between informalization of the poor and the middle class, but in both of them, the place of this informalization mainly is in the peri-urban areas. Fourth, approach of the right to the city can be addressed as an optimized approach to the rights of working-class groups and challenges in an informal urban background. Given the right to the city, decentralization of power from elites to the poor should be the first step, what Lefebvre called Utopia is a style of thinking that is possible in all regions of the world. Urban-based programs must have mechanisms for gathering the demands of the people. The right to the city is a gradual and procedural category. Adopting such an approach closes us to achieve the right to produce life space and the right to have spaces everyday life in the city. Achieving this right makes a city which two components of access to urban resources and spaces and the quality of urban life and decision making of residents as active subject not the political object are institutionalized for all classes residents in its. Achieving this right makes a city which two components of access to urban resources and spaces and the quality of urban life and decision making of residents as active subject not the political object are institutionalized for all classes residents in its.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • World policies
  • urban space
  • Informalization
  • South countries
  • The right to the city
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