عنوان مقاله [English]
The presented study aims to evaluate and analyze the urban housing indicators with an emphasis on the typology of housing and it examines the residential units in Gorgan’s regions in terms of accessibility to the facilities, physical, qualitative and quantitative characteristics, and satisfaction of housing architecture indicators. The purpose of this research is Practical-development, and in order to achieve this goal, a combination of descriptive, analytical and correlation researches are used. The statistical population of the research is Gorgan and the sample size is 384 cases. SPSS and GIS software used to analyze the data.
With global demographic changes, cities have increasingly felt the need of housing. Residence is the most important need of people and the largest space of the city must have dedicated to work out this most basic need. In small cities, more than 60% and in large cities, about 40% of the city covered by the residential usage. The economic and social importance of housing, on the one hand, and the employment and its relationship with many other sectors of the economy as an appropriate tool for the realization of economic policies in the other hand, has placed this sector at the center of public attention. cognition and proper categorization of different architectural types can be helpful in better understanding of the space, protecting it, and achieving new design techniques. The current research on the general framework of its primary and secondary goals, studies the housing estates of Gorgan city from the point of view of housing typology according to the indicators of housing planning in the triple urban areas.
The purpose of this research is Practical-development, and in order to achieve this goal, a combination of descriptive, analytical and correlation researches are used. In order to collect information about the field studies and documentary studies used and in the field studies method, a researcher-made questionnaire developed. The statistical population of the study consists of 53462 residential units in and the sample size will be 384 residential units based on Cochran's formula distributed by multistage randomized sampling method. Reliability of the questionnaires equals 0.82 using Cronbach's alpha test. Data analyzed by using SPSS software, Excel software and Arc GIS software used to prepare the map.
Results and discussion
In the section of describing the demographic data, 53/6% of the total sample population is male and 46/4% is women. The variation of household density in the whole community of the sample, based on the number of the family members, indicates that the families with the population of four with 33.06 percent constitute the largest proportion of the total population of the sample. In the study of the index of the number of residential units, the largest share with 26% belongs to a residential building with 6 to 8 residential units. The highest level of infrastructure in the triple areas is for buildings of 50 to 100 square meters. In first area with (46/35%), in the second area with (49/64%) and in second third area with (50/42%) However, the least abundance in first area belongs to buildings with an area of over 300 square meters with 2/43 percent, in the second and third district, buildings with an area of less than 50 square meters contain 3.0 percent and 3/36 percent, respectively. In studying the results of the land price index, the highest land prices with 30/67% belongs to the group of 1 to 1.5 million tomans and the lowest share with 9/33% is for the lands with a value above 2 million tomans. The results of the type of materials index shows that the largest share belongs to residential buildings with brick materials (33/34%) and in the study of residential buildings life index, the largest share belongs to buildings with a lifetime of 1 to 10 years (51/2%) and the lowest proportion of residential buildings over 20 years old (19/74%). The result of the tests, made on the regions, indicates that among the five variables of typology, in the first region, physical variable with a beta coefficient of 0/657 in the first stage, and quantitative variable with a beta coefficient of 0/341 in the second stage, In the second region qualitative variables with a beta coefficient of 0/409 in the first stage and the physical variable with a beta coefficient of 0/238 in the second step and in the third region, physical variable with a beta coefficient of 0/623 in the first stage and the access variable with a beta coefficient of 0/325 were verified and other variables of the typology were eliminate from the equation.
Based on the results, the most difference and diversity of housing in terms of typology is in the second district of Gorgan and the least is in the first urban area. Due to the wide variety of indices and components of housing in the second region, the variability of the population in this region, the obvious different level of economic activities of the people who live in this region, and the high percentage of immigrants in this area along with other indigenous inhabitants of the region. The first region due to its location in the best part of the city and the so-called top-notch region of the area, which shows the economic prosperity of people living in this area and the close cultural-social level of the inhabitants of the region,
As well as the much like similarity between the residential buildings of the area with each other with a slight difference, the same access to all the facilities of the city has made the region the least diverse in terms of indicators and components of the typology of the housing. Region 3, as it is seen, has a moderate rank in terms of variety and distinction of typology, which can be attributed to the close proximity of the immigrant and indigenous peoples of this region in terms of social, economic and cultural which are reflected by the housing structures and Specifications of housing qualities and qualities.
Key words: typology, housing indicators, stepped linear regression, Gorgan city
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