عنوان مقاله [English]
With global demographic changes, cities have increasingly felt the need for housing. Residence as the most important need of people covers the largest space of the city. In small cities, more than 60% and in large cities and about 40% of all cities are covered by the residential land use. The economic and social importance of housing, in the one hand, and the employment and its relationship with many other sectors of the economy as an appropriate tool for the realization of economic policies on the other hand, has placed this sector at the center of public attention. Cognition and proper categorization of different architectural types can be helpful in better understanding of the space to achieve new design techniques. The present research consider the general framework of the housing in Gorgan city from the point of view of housing typology according to the indicators of housing planning in the triple urban areas.
This study is an applied developmental research using a combination of descriptive, analytical and correlation methods. In order to collect data, we have used the field surveys and documentary studies and also researcher-made questionnaire. The statistical population of the study consists of 53462 residential units in the study area. The sample size will be 384 residential units based on Cochran's formula distributed by multistage randomized sampling method. Reliability of the questionnaires is about 0.82 using Cronbach's alpha test. Data have been analyzed by using SPSS, Excel and ArcGIS software.
Results and discussion
In the sample households, 53.6% of the total sample population is male and 46.4% is women. The variation of household density in the whole community of the sample based on the number of the family members indicates that the families of four people are 33.06 percent of the sample as the largest proportion of the total population of the sample. In the study of the index of the number of residential units, the largest proportion is 26% and belongs to a residential building with 6 to 8 units. The highest level of infrastructure in the triple areas is for buildings of 50 to 100 square meters. The area with 46.35% is the first class, in the second the value is 49.64%, and the third class cover 50.42% of the sample. However, the least abundance in first class belongs to buildings with an area of over 300 square meters with 2.43 percent, in the second and third district the buildings with an area of less than 50 square meters contain 3.0 percent and 3.36 percent, respectively. In studying the results of the land price index, the highest land price with 30.67% belongs to the group of 10 to 15 million Iranian Rials. The lowest proportion covers 9.33% for the lands with a value above 20 million Rials. The results of the type of materials index shows that the largest proportion belongs to residential buildings with brick materials (33.34%) and in the study of residential buildings life index, the largest share belongs to buildings with a lifetime of 1 to 10 years old (51.2%). The lowest proportion of residential buildings is over 20 years old (19.74%). The results of the tests indicates that among the five variables of typology, in the first region, the physical variables with a beta coefficient of 0.657 is in the first order, and the quantitative variables with a beta coefficient of 0.341 is in the second order. In the second region, qualitative variables with a beta coefficient of 0.409 are in the first order and the physical variables with a beta coefficient of 0.238 in the second order. In the third region, the physical variables with a beta coefficient of 0.623 are in the first order. The access variables with a beta coefficient of 0.325 have been verified and other variables of the typology have been eliminated from the equation.
Based on the results, the highest difference and diversity of housing in terms of typology is found in the second district of Gorgan and the least is in the first of the urban area. The diversity and differences is resulted from a wide variety of indices and components of housing in the second district, the variability of population, the different economic activities of the people living in this region, and the high percentage of immigrants to this area along with other indigenous inhabitants to the region. The different typology of the district 1 of Gorgan city is also resulted from its location in the best part of the city and the so-called top-notch region of the area. This shows the economic prosperity of people living in this area and the close cultural-social level of the inhabitants of the region.
Same as similarity of the residential buildings of the area with each other, the access to all the facilities of the city show the least diverse in terms of indicators and components of the typology of the housing. The district 3, as it can be seen, has a moderate rank in terms of variety and distinction of typology. This can be attributed to the close proximity of the immigrant and indigenous peoples of this region in terms of social, economic and cultural aspects. These can be reflected by the housing structures and specifications of housing qualities.
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