عنوان مقاله [English]
An Analysis of Social Security in Urban Areas by Structural Equation Modeling (Case Study: Ardabil City)
In general, security is the primary right of citizenship and its provision is the prime duty of governments to the citizens and is the most basic concept in social and civil life, which is tied to the concept of backwardness. As geographic regions with better development indicators have a higher safety margin, the less developed and undeveloped regions of the world are matched by insecure areas. The concept of security was introduced in the context of the development of new security and post-Cold War analysis in Europe. In today's world, it is one of the significant phenomena that is considered to be the basic needs and necessities of a person and society, and its lack or disturbance has consequences and alarming and dangerous reflections. And it is one of the most important components to achieve stable reliance on stability. And its existence in urban environments is one of the basic requirements of quality of life. Considering the necessity of the subject, this research has been carried out with the aim of evaluating and evaluating social security by examining various aspects of various dimensions of security in urban space. And the city of Ardabil has been studied as one of the cities of the country. Like other provincial centers of the country after the land reform and post-revolution urbanization, the city faced a huge flood of migrants to the city. According to the Central Statistics Organization, the population of the city of Ardabil in 1335 was 65 thousand, which in 2011 was 482 thousand people, and finally reached 592.347 thousand in the 1395 census. Considering the presented issues, this discussion seeks to answer the question. Is there a significant difference between the four areas of Ardabil in terms of social security components? And which areas of the city have more security than other urban areas?
The research method is descriptive-analytical and survey in terms of its purpose and its method. Libraries and questionnaires were used to collect data and information. The statistical population consists of residents of Ardabil city. According to the census of 1395, the population of Ardabil city is 592374 people. The sample size is based on the formula “Cochran” with a confidence level of 95% of 384 people. Also, in order to measure social security, a 26-item questionnaire was used in the form of a Liker scale. In order to estimate the validity of the questionnaire and the questions asked in it, experts and experts have used the subject of research and questionnaires. To determine the reliability of the questionnaire, Cranach's alpha coefficient was used. And for validation through structural equation model, after entering the data from the questionnaires into SPSS software and coding operation on the data, coding data in the LISREL program environment (LISREL) was called and analyzed to analyze the data and information has been.
Discussion of Results
The findings show that the citizens 'sense of financial security indices with the T 4.23 statistic, the sense of citizens' safety with T 5.26, the sense of physical security with the value of 4.59 and the role of the police force with a T 2.24 level were completely Meaningful and have a fairly inwardly interconnected relationship.
In the study of the social security status based on the Coopers model in urban areas of Ardabil, it has come to the conclusion that among the four studied items, the citizens' financial sense of security by obtaining the rate (Q = 0.198) The role of law enforcement in feeling of security with a score of points (Q = 0.1916) and a sense of physical security with a score of points (Q = 0.1912) were ranked first to third.
Among the items studied, the sense of security of citizens is at an end. To assess the status of each of the four areas of the city of Ardebil with regard to the indicators studied in the security sector; The 2nd district of the city with the highest score (Q = 0.30) was placed in the fourth zone of the city in the first place and the 4th with the score (Q = 0.28) and the area 1 with the score (Q = 0.25) in the third place. They are eventually, the 3rd district of the city with the score (Q1.81) is in the last place.
With the development of cities, social, economic and environmental problems also emerged. Meanwhile, with the complexity of the social relations of citizens, the concept of security was eliminated from the physical and physical state and became more subjective, objective, and more concrete. As security is of vital importance to a community, security feelings are equally important. Because the actions and reactions of individuals' social relationships in the community are as much understood and secured as security. Unless a person has security in the community, he does not feel safe and relaxed. The social, economic and environmental problems of urban development and urbanization continue. Following the wider social relations of citizens, the notion of security in cities is intrinsically tangible and has a different physical, social, cultural, and political dimension. Social security is one of the important consequences of social order and social cohesion and the basic precondition for the development and advancement of society. If the citizens of a community do not feel socially safe, the people of society cannot enjoy their talents effectively, as a result of the social-human capital will not be able to develop Economic, social, political and cultural life, and the urban structure has also rebuilt its growth and development.
Keywords: Security, Social Security, Urban Spaces, Structural Equation Modeling, Coopers Model, Ardabil City
21. Alavi, Seyyed Ali; Hosseini, Seyyed Mostafa; Mohammadi Hamidi, Somayeh and Sorkh Kamal, Kobra, 2016, Evaluation of effective factors on security feeling in urban neighborhoods Case study: Yazd city, Journal of Social Security Studies, Vol. 48, PP. 149-172. (in persian)
22. Andalib, Alireza, 2001, The Sustainable Theory and the Principles of the Establishment of the Border Regions, Tehran, Islamic revolutionary guards, Faculty of Fatemeh and Headquarters. (in persian)
23. Assuri, Darius ,1997, Political Encyclopedia, Tehran: Morvarid Publication, Fourth Edition .(in persian)
24. Azizi, Mohammad Mehdi and Shaaban Jula, Elaheh, 2015, Evaluation of the Anatomy of Urban Old Townships in Response to Sensitive Security (Case Study: Malekabad District of Qazvin City), Journal of Human Resource Research, Vol. 4, No. 46, PP. 791-808. (in persian)
25. Bartolo, Giuseppe, 2012, Security and Planning: A Canadian Case Study Analysis, thesis presented to the University of Waterloo in fulfillment of the thesi requirement for the degree of Master of Environmental Studies in Planning, Waterloo, Ontario, Canada, 2012.
26. Bilgin, P., 2003, Individual and Societal Dimensions of Security, Bilkent University of Turkey, Department of International Relation, International Studies Review, Vol. 5, PP. 203-222.
27. Boisteau, Charlotte, 2006, Bulding Communities: Urban Planning and Security Policies, Actions from the 2nd CIFAL training workshop, Barcelona (March 8th-10th).
28. Booth, Ken, 1991, Security in Anarchy: Utopian Realism in Theory and Practice, International Affairs, Vol. 67, No. 3.
29. Booth, Ken, 1991, Security in Anarchy: Utopian Realism in Theory and Practice, International Affairs, Vol. 67, No. 3.
30. Borden, K. A.; Schmidtlein, M. C.; Emrich, C. T.; Piegorsch, W. W. and Cutter, S. L., 2007, Vulnerability of US cities to environmental hazards. Journal of Homeland Security and Emergency Management, 4. https://doi.org/10.2202/1547-7355.1279.
31. Brownlow, Alec, 2005, A geography of men’s fear, Department of Geography and Urban Studies, Temple University, Philadelphia, PA 19122, Geoforum 36, www.elsevier.com/locate/geoforum.
32. Carmona, Catthew; Heath, Ttim; Oc, Taner and Ttiesdell, Steven, 2003, Public Places, Urban Spaces, Architectural Press, New York, Paris.
33. Ceccato, V. and Lukyte, N., 2011, Safety and sustainability in a city in transition: The case of Vilnius, Lithuania. Cities, 28, 83e94. https://doi.org/10.1016/ j.cities.2010.10.001.
34. Cutter, S. L.; Boruff, B. J. and Shirley, W. L., 2003, Social vulnerability to environmental hazards. Social Science Quarterly, 84, 242e261. https://doi.org/10.1111/ 1540-6237.8402002.
35. Esmaeili Morad, Atta and Rasoli Azad, Morad, 2014, Measuring the level of social security feeling of citizens of Kermanshah city. Journal of Law Entrepreneurship in Lorestan, Vol. 5, No. 1, PP. 23-56. (in persian)
36. Ghulam Nariami, Athena, 2017, Sociological Assessment of the Four Dimensions of Social Security among Female Heads of Households (Case Study: Female Heads of Households in Tehran), Journal of Women's Research Research Institute for Humanities and Cultural Studies, Vol. 8, No. 3, PP. 69-86.
37. Iranian Statistics Center, Ardebil City Population from 1335 to 1390: Direct Access Link. (in persian)
38. Khalid, Amir Rastegar and Salamat Bidgoli, Masoud and Aran Dashti, Somayeh, 2014, Investigating the social capital of the neighborhood with the sense of neighborhood security studied: Aran and Bidgol, Journal of Urban Sociological Studies, Vol. 4, No. 11, PP. 126-91. (in persian)
39. Kim, Seongin, 2008, Concept of societal security and migration issues in central Asia and Russia, CAMMIC Working Papers, No. 2, Center for Far Eastern Studies University of Toyama 2008.
40. Kim, Seongjin, 2008, Concept Of Societal Security And Migration Issues In Central Asia And Russia, Central Asian Migration Management & International Cooperation (CAMMIC) conducted by Center for Far Eastern Studies, University of Toyama.
41. King, Gary and Murry, Christopher J. L., 2001, Rethinking Human Security, Political Science Quarterly, Vol. 116, No. 4, PP. 585-610.
42. Krause, Keith and Williams, Michael C., 1996, Broadening the Agenda of Security Studies: Politics and Methods, Mershon International Studies Review, Vol. 40, No. 2, PP. 229-254.
43. Li,. Jie; Liu, Qian and Sang, Yao, 2012, International symposium on safety scince and engineering in china, 2012(ISSSE-2012), Procedia Engineering, Vol. 43, PP. 615-621.
44. Lotfi, Sedigheh; Bardi Anamadad Nejad, Rahim and Vahedi, Hyder, 2015, Evaluation of the physical components of public spaces and their impact on the social security of citizens of Babolsar, Journal of Strategic Research on Security and Social Order, Vol. 4, No. 1, PP. 155-131. (in persian)
45. McDonald, Matt, 2002, Human Security and the Construction of Security, Global Society, Vol. 16, No. 3, PP. 277-295.
46. Mohammadi, Asghar and Zare, Maryam, 2016, Social security in urban marginal areas, Quarterly Journal of New Research in the Humanities, Vol. 15, PP. 180-157. (in persian)
47. Mohseni, Reza Ali; Bagheri, Mohammad; AliPour, Alireza and Ghahremani, Mahtab, 2017, Investigating the sense of security in public spaces (A case study of Ardabil city), Journal of Social Science Research, Volume 11, Special Issue on Prevention of Crime and Law, PP. 485-498.
48. Mousavi, Mirnajaf; Waysian, Mohammad; Mohammadi Hamidi, Somayeh and Asghari, Maryam, 2015, The sense of security in the urban spaces of the city of Sarakhs, Journal of Geography Journal, Vol. 13, No. 45, PP. 185-202. (in persian)
49. Naderi, Hamdollah; Jahed, Mohammad Ali and Shirzad, Mahin Dakht, 2010, Investigating the Confidence and the Influence of Social Security in Urban Case Study of Ardabil, Journal of Social Security Studies, No. 21, PP. 59-87. (in persian)
50. Newman, Edward, 2001, Human Security and Constructivism, International Studies Perspectives, Vol. 2, No. 3, PP. 239-251.
51. Piegorsch, W. W.; Cutter, S. L. and Hardisty, F., 2007, Benchmark analysis for quantifying urban vulnerability to terrorist incidents. Risk Analysis: An International Journal, 27, 1411e1425. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1539-6924.2007.00977.x.
52. Rafi Pour, Faramarz, 2007, Cannibals and Concepts; Introduction to Community Recognition and Social Research Methods, Tehran: Joint Stock Company prees. (in persian)
53. Rahnemaei, Mohammad Taghi and Pour Mousavi, Seyyed Mosa, 2006, Investigating the security instabilities of the Tehran metropolis based on the indicators of sustainable urban development, Journal of Geographical Research, Vol. 57, No. 4. (in persian)
54. Razaniak, Piotr and Razaniak, Anna Winiarczyk, 2014, Influence of the social secrity level on population migration in poland, Social and behavioral since, Vol. 12, PP. 2-12.
55. Razm Pouri, Ali Akbar; Rahnama, Mohammad Rahim and Afshar, Zeynab, 2014, Investigation of Social Security of Women in Different Areas of Yasuj, Journal of Law enforcement of Kohkiluyeh and Boyer Ahmad, Vol. 15, No. 7. (in persian)
56. Sajjadi, Jila; Heidari, Saman and Bagheri, Keyvan, 2014, Investigating and evaluating the social security of citizens Investigating: New and planned texture and waste texture of Javanrud city, Journal of Geoscience Research, Vol. 7, No. 2, PP. 87-112. (in persian)
58. Tandogana, Oksan and Ilhan, Bige Simsek, 2016, Fear of Crime in Public Spaces: From the View of Women Living in Cities, World Multidisciplinary Civil Engineering-Architecture-Urban Planning Symposium 2016, WMCAUS 2016, Procedia Engineering, Vol. 161, PP. 2011-2018.
59. UN, 2009, Human Security in Theory and Practice: An Overview of the Human Security Concept and the United Nations Trust Fund for Human Security Human Security Unit United Nations New York, NY 10017, USA www.un.org/humansecurity.
60. UNDP, 1994, Human Development Report, Oxford: Oxford University Press.
61. Wearver, O., 2000, Societal Security: http://www.Ciaonet.Org/book/hall/ hall01. Html, 2000.
62. Wiesi, Hadi, 2016, Investigating the Impact of Geographic Factors on Social Security (Case Study: Kerman Province), Journal of Geographical Research, Vol. 31, No. 120, PP. 169-185. (in persian)
63. Yu, Danlin and Fang, Changeling, 2017, The dynamics of public safety in cities: A case study of Shanghai from 2010 to 2025, Habitat International, Vol. 69, PP. 104-113.
65. Zare Shahabadi, Akbar and Torkan, Rahmatollah, 2011, The study of factors affecting the sense of social security among citizens of Yazd, Journal of Security Police, Vol. 14, No. 2, PP. 133-156. (in persian).