عنوان مقاله [English]
Poverty is one of the most important challenges humankind face with it. Villagers are one of the poorest and most vulnerable groups in societies, especially in the third world. Accordingly, providing a livelihood in human societies is one of the biggest challenges of planning, particularly in rural communities, which are the focus of the poor people in developing countries. Livelihood consist of activities, assets, and access that are jointly determine individual or rural households living condition. According to the livelihood approach empowerment and the interference power of villager in their individual and society destiny and activities are link to sustainable livelihoods framework. These criteria affect the livelihood strategies of rural households and has significant role in subsistence and livelihood sustainability. By increasing the level of access to different types of assets dependent on the livelihood and control of them , the poor will be able to provide their basic needs and they can create alternative livelihood choices , These assets comprise a livelihood body.According to these issues, the present study examines the capital and assets of poor villager and seeks to spatial analyze of livelihood assets in the villages of Buin Zahra Township, and seeks to answer these questions: how is the spatial distribution of livelihood assets in the studied villages? What level are livelihood assets in the villages of buin Zahra Township? In addition, is there difference between villages of study area in livelihood assets? Which of the livelihood assets in the villages of the study is desirable?
Methodology of this research is applied one and in the nature is descriptive- analytical. Data was collected by documentary study (Books, Articles and Reports) and field study (Questionnaire, Observation, and Interview). required data was collected by using a questionnaire form and interviewing with 532 people (the Cochran formula was used for sampling) of40 villages in Buin Zahra Township, To analyze the data, descriptive statistics (Mean, Frequency) and comparative statistics (Correlation Coefficient, One Sample T-test, ANOVA), and in order to evaluate and analyze the assets we use the Moran and Gi spatial statistics method and kriging. Validity of the questionnaire was examined by scholar and a pre-test and was approved after correction. In addition, the reliability of the questionnaire was evaluated by using the Cronbach’s alpha test in the SPSS software, which was confirmed to be 0/88.
In general, in order to measure the level of livelihood assets and their spatial distribution, from the perspective of the sample society, dimensions of livelihood assets were identified in six social, institutional, human, natural, physical, financial and 71 indicators.
Discussion & findings
Investigating the individual characteristics of respondents shows that the average age of individuals is 45.97 years, among them 2 percent male and the rest are women. According to the level of education, 33.1% of the respondents are illiterate, 16.5% are elementary, 27.3% are secondary, 23.1% have an undergraduate degree and diploma degree. In terms of household size, the average size of household’s members is 2.61 and the maximum number of members is from the number of 7 to 5 members. The descriptive results of the study showed that the livelihood assets of the villagers were on the moderate and lower levels and according to the one sample t-test of villagers’ perspective, only social asset was evaluated at the desired level. One-way ANOVA was used to determine the variability of villages in terms of assets that the test results indicate that there is a significant difference between the studied villages in terms of access to assets. According to Duncan, test results show that zein-abad rural district had the lowest livelihood assets. one-way variance analysis test was used To find the different assets average in the study villages,; the results showed that the social asset has better conditions in the studied villages and human asset is undesirable. Non-parametric analysis of the correlation between social, physical, human, financial, natural and institutional assets in the studied villages indicates a direct relationship between livelihood assets.
The mapping data generated in relation to livelihood assets and indicate indicate that; in terms of livelihood assets, the central district of Buin Zahra township, the east west and north of the region, has a desirable condition and the south & southeast and the west has undesirable conditions. The map of hot spots are also confirms that. Hot spot located in the central district; and cold spots are located in the south-east & south-west (in the whole south of Buin Zahra Township)
This study aimed to analyze the spatial distribution of livelihoods in villages of Buin Zahra Township. According to the research results, the social assets of the villages are in a good condition; and the same asset can be used to improve other assets; because rural development programs can be better fulfill and implemented with cooperation and participation of villagers; and according to the kriging-based maps for south-eastern villages ( some villages of zahraye-paein rural district) and villages of zein-abad rural district, social asset promotion programs should be carried out through participation of people in decision-making and implementation of employment plans and village executive activities through rural municipality and village councils. according to the maps of the studied villages and the results of the analysis of one - way variance, human assets among other assets are in a undesirable condition and this is a major weakness in the region; especially in the eastern and southern regions of Buin Zahra township, that programs should be funded by relevant institutions, including the education and vocational education of the province in cooperation with the local management, So that people in agriculture and livestock will have sufficient education and skill, and by holding entrepreneurial education, they may teach people to be creative and innovative in the fields of farm and farm jobs, which are the dominant method of livelihood of villagers. Moreover, rural households are able to earn more money and has a sustainable livelihood and less vulnerable to risks.
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