عنوان مقاله [English]
The process of urban centralization in Iran caused the lack of facility and infrastructure to be multiplied as the urban population increases and different urban groups according to the quality of life have different access to these facilities. Industrial cities have certain characteristics including: the centralization of industrial activities, environmental problems and spatial dichotomy which is the most important of all. Thane fore, paying attention to the sustainability of the development of petroleum oil cities, particular in according to physical condition and civil services is necessary. In relation to the city of Abadan, the oil generation in Khuzestan is the main factor in the formation of this new city. It is one of the largest and most important new cities created in the 20th century. It is predictable that the city was emerged by accepting 300 thousand people as its population. It is a young and non - historical city, and it has grown across the island as a mushroom, on the basis of the oil - based economy. The city, created by the economic relations resulting from the production of oil, according to its manufacturers’ tendency, admits the shears to its body and is divided into separate sections and with conflicting social morphology. Accordingly, the city’s face is related to the strong dichotomy in biology, population and class. In this research, the distribution pattern of urban facilities and services in relation to economic and social factors are discussed. Therefore, this study tries to develop practical solutions using important factors such as the use of new statistics and data as well as methods, tools and models to conduct research in order to better explain the distribution of urban services pattern and effective factors on it so that it can regulate the balance of the city of Abadan in terms of the enjoyment of urban services.
It is an applied study based on the descriptive - analytic research space. Considering that the main objective of this study is to investigate the spatial equilibrium of oil - rich city of Abadan in relation to economic and social factors, the economic and social status variables of the city are selected as the dependent variable and the changing variable of urban services users as dependent variable. This research has been done by descriptive analytical method and aims to explain the distribution pattern of urban services in the neighborhoods of Abadan and to study the role of oil industry in this regard. The aim of this study is to collect documentary and field data (questionnaire distribution) and to utilize indexes of kernel density estimation, location of the nearest neighbor, Spatial Autocorrelation (Morans I), Ordinary Least Squares (OLS) and Pearson correlation coefficient by Arc GIS and SPSS software.
Results and discussion
The most important results of this research are presented below:
• The distribution of urban services in the city of Abadan was unbalanced and focused.
• The central neighborhoods of Abadan, which are mostly dependent on the oil industry and formed around the refinery, are the origins of Abadan city in terms of their advantages of urban services, citizens enjoy a very good state, especially the eastern border of the city and it’s a kind of fueled spatial duality of the city of Abadan.
• Socially and economically developed locations include the central neighborhood around the refinery, a significant number of which are dependent on the oil industry. As well as social and economic development, they are also in a better position in terms of their enjoyment of urban services, which led to separation and spatial duality in the city of Abadan. Among these factors, such as the existence of the planned neighborhoods of the oil industry, which are both economically and socially progressive, are also affected by the existence of marginal neighborhoods, especially in the eastern regions of the city of Abadan, which are socially and economically vulnerable and are less sensitive to urban management in terms of physical development. It has continued in a continuum: And as it comes to discussing the urban development stages, Weak economic and even social groups, after the promotion of their class, moved to migrate from their slums and to the more prosperous quarters economically and socially, as well as the enjoyments of urban services.
One of the factors that need to be observed for spatial equilibrium in urban planning is the proper distribution of urban public services and proper use of space. On the other hand, industrial cities have long had specific problems, especially in spatial structure. This research has proposed more efficient methods for pattern analysis and factors affecting the distribution of urban services, methods and techniques of this research were presented into spatial statistical models using Arc GIS software. The methods and models such as geographical distribution indices (e.g., mean center, center of gravity, ellipse deviation, etc.) might provide a better spatial vision of the distribution patterns of urban services in the city of Abadan. The pooled OLS model also depicts the correlation and effects of different indicators and variables in the form of multiple linear regression models in the context of the studied space.
In general, what the present study (in the form of objectives) seeks to analyze and the general conclusion suggests is that the spatial distribution of urban services in the city of Abadan is seriously unbalanced and the need for a serious review of the plans of the city of Abadan, particularly in its discussion of the plans, is seriously felt. In this regard, it is essential to consider plans for organizing broken localities and urban areas (with regard to allocating part of income from the oil industry as well as municipality duties from more developed localities).