عنوان مقاله [English]
One of the main plans for creating a sustainable urban form is the urban infill development plan. Infill development can be understood as the simplest interpretation of infill development, which attempts to extend development on the empty and abandoned land (Sharifian, 2010: 47; Mirkatoli & Hosaini, 2014: 71). According to Ahvaz municipality data (2017), from 1956 to 2016, 1,20098 persons and an area above to 2500 hectares had been reached to 130,2591 persons and an area of 22200 hectares. Arising problems caused by the large spatial- physical development of Ahvaz such as the low quality of life and indicators of human development, the lack of residential unit, the existence of worn-out urban texture in the central regions of the city with a severe need to organize and Re-development, locating a large percentage of the population (about 40%) in unsustainable urban regions, undesirable city life, lack of space and cultural facilities, and ... have led to a critical approach to horizontal distribution in this city which is one of control method against horizontal distribution of city and controlling its problems for achieving sustainable development is urban infill development that we can use this approach to identify urban development capacity in empty land and physical urban limits.
Therefore, in this research, the aim is to investigate the distribution of selected indicators of research related to urban infill development in Ahvaz city and the impact of these indices on urban infill development on studied regions in order to strengthen and improve them to achieve sustainable urban development. In this regard, according to the above-mentioned problem, the present study seeks to answer the main research question "How will be the situation of the eight regions of Ahvaz based on infill development capacity indicators distribution in the form of sustainable urban development indicators”.
The purpose of the present study is to be considered as an applied research. The method of collecting information in this research is considering documents and library studies. In general, the process of doing research is as follows: first, the theoretical foundations related to the subject have been considered, then three main selected indicators and 13 sub-indicators have been used for evaluating and considering the situation of eight regions of Ahvaz in terms of infill development indicator and three main selected indicators and 20 sub-indicators have been used for evaluating and considering sustainable levels of eight regions of Ahvaz. In this study, using the statistics presented in the statistics of Ahvaz and according to the data available in the documents obtained from the municipality of Ahvaz (2016), the indicators have been selected for the purpose of considering the main objective. After identifying the indicators and collecting information, TOPSIS model is used to combine the selected indices and the ranking of the eight regions of Ahvaz in terms of the status of the affective indexes on the urban infill development. Also, Shannon's entropy coefficient was used to weigh the selected indices. After calculating the TOPSIS coefficient for the indicated indices, the levels of eight regions of Ahvaz related to the capacity of urban infill development and sustainable urban development using cluster analysis technique. Finally, using the GIS software, the results are presented as output of map.
Result & discussion
The results showed that in terms of the capacity of urban infill development, using the selected indicators, regions 5,1 and 3 have the highest coefficient and the highest urban infill development. regions 2 and 7 have the least capacity in Ahvaz. Also, the results obtained from the TOPSIS model were ranked by cluster analysis, which was determined that region 5 in the first level and region 1 in the second level have the highest capacity for urban infill development and region 2 in fourth level has the lowest level of capacity in terms of urban infill development in Ahvaz city. Based on the results obtained from the TOPSIS model, it can be said that regions 4, 6 and 3 have the highest coefficient, and regions 5 and 2 have the lowest coefficient in terms of sustainable urban development respectively. Also, based on the results obtained from cluster analysis, region 4 is the most suitable region in terms of selected indicators of sustainable urban development and regions 5 and 2 is the least suitable region in terms of selected indicators of sustainable urban development in Ahvaz city.
According to the social index of the region 1, the urban services index of region 1 and the physical indicators of region 5, the eight regions of Ahvaz have the highest capacity for urban infill development. Also in accordance with the urban services index of region 5 and the physical indicators of region 2 have the lowest capacity for urban infill development. Also, the results of the survey on the status of the amount of access to indicators in eight regions of Ahvaz were different in terms of the selected indicators of sustainable urban development, so that in terms of access to the social index in region 4, the urban services index in region 1 and the physical index in region 4 has the highest rate of access to the indicators. It is necessary to say that the lowest rate of access to the indicators is belonged to regions 5,7 and 8 for the social index, the physical index and urban services index respectively. In general, it can be noted that due to the importance of infill development in the field of creating a sustainable urban form, it is necessary to pay attention to all important and effective indicators. In this regard, one of the necessities of reaching to urban development specially in Ahvaz is paying attention to type of development resources distribution, considering justice in utilization, and lack of attention and investment in a particular place. This point emphasizes that all these selected indicators can influence the sustainable development of Ahvaz city if it is properly paid attention to them.
Keywords: Infill development, Sustainable urban development, TOPSIS, Shannon Entropy, Ahvaz Metropolis
35. Aeini, Mohammad and Ardestani, Z.A.S, 2010, Regeneration and people participation pyramid", an appraisal criteria of brown field development programs (case study the viewpoint of regularizing and supporting of the construction and supply of housing (RSCSH) law to rehabilitation and regeneration of urban distressed areas (UDAS). Quarterly Hoviatshahri, Vol. 3, No. 5, PP. 47-58. (In Persian)
36. Ahwaz Municipality, 2018, Ahwaz Municipality Information Center: http://www.ahvaz.ir/Default.aspx?tabid=108. (In Persian)
37. Anderson, W. P., Kanaroglou, P. S. and Miller, E. J, 1996. Urban form, energy andthe environment: a review of issues, evidenceand policy. Urban Studies, Vol. 33, No.1, PP 7-35.
38. Arjmandi Abasi, P., 2009, The feasibility of in-space development in Iran using the GIS tool Case study of Deh Vanak neighborhood, MSc Thesis, Tehran University, Tehran. (In Persian)
39. Arvin, Mahmoud; Pour Ahmad, Ahmad and Zanganeh Shahraki, Saeed, 2018, Wastewater source for the purpose of interpolation adjustment, Case Study: Ahwaz City. Journal of Geographical Space Preparation, Seventh Year, No. 26, PP. 163-181
40. Berdi Annamoradnejad, R.; Roradeh, H. and Ahmadinejad, S., 2013, Analyzing sustainable development in urban zones of Mega-cities (A case study of Isfahan). Journal of SHAHR-Ha, Vol. 1, No. 2, PP. 71-94. (In Persian)
41. Drakaki, S.D., 2000, Third world Cities, Second Edition, Rout ledge, London.
42. Frank, M.K. and Falconer, J.E. 1990, Sufficiency of infrastructure capacity for infill and redevelopment, Journal of urban planning and development, Vol. 116, No. 3, PP. 137-145.
43. Ghani, F., 2014, Planning central Tehran tissue attitude infill development. Master's thesis of Urban Planning, Supervisor: Manouchehr Tabibian, Faculty of Fine Arts, Tehran University. (In Persian)
44. Gharakhloo, M. and Hoseini, S. H., 2006, Indicators of urban sustainable development. Journal of Geography and Regional Development, Vol. 5, No. 8, PP. 157-177. (In Persian)
45. Haidari, J., 2011, Urban distressed areas of Bushehr city and urban development. Ph.D. thesis in Geography and Urban Planning, Supervisor: Mohammad Soleimani, Kharazmi University of Tehran. (In Persian)
46. Hudnut, W., 2001, Comment on J. Terence Farris’s Barriers to using urban infilldevelopment to achieve smart growth, Housing Policy Debate, volume12, Fannie Mae Foundation
47. Jamshidi, M.; Jamshidi, A.L. and Jalalian, E., 2017, Key methods in human geography studies (with emphasis on the rules applicable to the three questions: What? How? And how?). Tehran, AradBook Publishing. (In Persian)
48. Jangjoo, Sh., 2007, The Set of Topics Master's Degree Program in Urban and Regional Planning and Urban Design. Tehran, Behin Negar Publishing. (In Persian)
49. Kienitz, R., 2001, Managing Maryland’s growth: models and guidelines for infill development, Maryland department of planning.
50. Maleki, S. and Damanbagh, S., 2013, Evaluation of sustainable development indexes with emphasis on physical and social indexes and urban services (A case study of Ahvaz city). Journal of SHAHR-Ha, Vol. 1, No. 3, PP. 29-54. (In Persian)
51. Mazini, M., 2008, Articles on urban and urban planning. Tehran, Tehran University Press. (In Persian)
52. Mirkatoli, J. and Hosaini, S.M.H., 2014, Internal lands suitability evaluation for interior development in Gorgan city with using AHP & GIS. Journal of Urban Studies, Vol. 3, No. 9, PP. 69-80. (In Persian)
53. Mirmoghtadaeii, M.; Rafeian, M. and Sangi, E., 2010, Reflection on the concept of infill development and its necessity in urban areas. Magazine of the municipalities, Vol. 10, No. 98, PP. 44-51. (In Persian)
54. MosaKazemi, S.M., 2006, Evaluation of Urban Development; Concepts, Methods and Indicators. Journal of Paik Noor, Vol. 5, No. 2, PP. 9-24. (In Persian)
55. Nanvazadeh, H., 2012, Internal development of the city; Recovery and Regeneration of Inner City of abandoned and abandoned land (recovery area). Case Study: Designing the Military Range of the Officers' Club (Old Government Organ) in Sanandaj. Master's thesis in Urban Design, Faculty of Fine Arts, University of Tehran. (In Persian)
56. Pourahmad, A.; Zangeneh Shahraki, S.; Arvin, M. (2015). Identification of the Physical Fabric Potential to Infill Development Applying Decision Making and GIS Models (case study: Ahvaz), Geography and Sustainability of Environment, Vol. 5, No. 16, PP. 17-37. (In Persian)
57. Rafeian, M., 2007, Value Engineering, Opportunity for the Effectiveness of Urban Projects, Conference on Engineering Value, Tehran. (In Persian)
58. Rafeian, M.; Barati, N. and Aram, M., 2011, Capacity Development Assessment of Brownfield Areas in CBD of Qazvin (On the Basis of Infill Development Approach). Journal of Architecture and Urban Planning, Vol. 3, No. 5, PP. 45-61. (In Persian)
59. Rafeian, M.; Taghvaeii, A.A. and Vahdani, H., 2010, Capacitance of Neighborhood Development in the Sustainable Urban Development Process (Case Study: Kalkata Chi neighborhood, Tabriz city). Sofeh, Vol. 19, No. 49, PP. 93-104. (In Persian)
60. Sangi, E. and Rafieian, M., 2014, Measuring the Desirability of Living in Urban Infill Development with Emphasis on Fuzzy Logic, Case Study: District No. 19 of Tehran Municipality. Armanshahr Architecture & Urban Development Journal, Vol. 6, No. 11, PP. 349-361. (In Persian)
61. Sarvar, H.; Sarvar, R. and Tohidi, M., 2017, Reviews optimal Pattern of Physical Development in Baneh City; Emphasizing on the Infill Development Indices. Journal of Geography and Environmental Studies, Vol. 5, No. 20, PP. 65-82. (In Persian)
62. Sharifian, E., 2010, Infill development, utilization of inner-city capacities. Manzar, Vol. 2, No. 10, PP. 47-50. (In Persian)
63. Sheikhi, H., 2018, Analyzing Environmental Abilities for Urban Development (Case Study: Ilam City). Human Geography Research Quarterly, Vol. 50, No. 1, PP. 127-144. (In Persian)
64. Suchman, Dian, 2008, Developing Successful Infill Housing, Washington, D.C.: Urban Land Institute.
65. Soleimani-damaneh, M. and Zarepisheh, M., 2009, Shannon’s entropy for combining the efficiency results of different DEA models: Method and application. Expert Systems with Applications, Vol. 36, PP. 5146-5150.
66. Tarnay, S., 2004, Barriers and Solutions to Land Assembly for infill Development, Urban Land Institute, Land Use Policy Forum Report, Washington.D.C.
67. Teimouri, I.; Farhudi, R.; Rahnemaei, M. T. and Gharakhlu M., 2012, Evaluating Social Sustainability Using Fuzzy Logic (Case Study: Tehran). Geography, Vol. 10, No. 35, PP. 19-39. (In Persian)
68. Vahdani, H., 2005, Feasibility Study of Local Development Capacities for Sustainable Urban Development (Case Study of Kalkata-chi neighborhood) (Tabriz, Iran). Master's thesis, Faculty of Arts and Architecture, Tarbiat Modarres University. (In Persian)
69. Wheeler, S., 2003, Smart infill: Creating More Livable Communities the Bay Area; A Guide for Bay Area Leader, San Francisco: Greenbelt Alliance.
70. Zayyari, K.; Pourahmad, A. and Hamzehpour, R., 2016, Identify and examine the available capacities and potentials of the land focusing on infilling development (Case study: Sardasht city neighborhoods). Urban Management Studies, Vol. 7, No. 24, PP. 79-98. (In Persian).