عنوان مقاله [English]
According to the international reports, more than half of the world's population had been settled in urban areas in 2007. Meanwhile only 13 % of the world’s population lived in urban areas until a century before. The growth of urban population is such that today, 4 percent of the Earth's surface is allocated to the urban areas. This is expected to reach 65 % in 2030. Rapid urban growth, physical development of the cities, and irregular and haphazard spatial development in the recent decades have all led to the disintegration of the spatial organization of the cities. Regrettably, the distribution of urban services has been studied more in terms of land use schemes and user per capita, and residents ' access to urban services has not been taken into account adequately. As one of the major cities of Iran, Yazd is not an exception. This city has experienced horizontal and fragmented expansion in the recent decades. This has caused some sort of imbalance in the use of urban services. So, the available evidence suggests that the outer and newly formed part of the city has low access to the public services. In fact, the distribution pattern is not proportional to the growth and development of the city. The present paper seeks to investigate and evaluate the distribution of the urban public services in the city of Yazd and determine the concentrated areas.
In this research, based on the existing land use maps related to the detailed plan of Yazd city, different layers associated to the location of urban services were created in the Arc_GIS_10.3 software. Then, for weighting, a questionnaire was developed and distributed among experts to use the resulting information. Based on this questionnaire and Delphi technique, the primary and secondary services were also weighted. To analyze the level of urban services, we used the Euclidean distance and the layers overlay techniques in order to analyze the distribution of the urban public services in three regions of Yazd.
Results and discussion
Yazd city, as in many cities of Iran, due to the unbalanced development resulting from the migration flood from villages, faces the problem of poor distribution of urban services and facilities. Unplanned city development has led to the expansion of the provision of some services far from the city center, making it difficult for such areas to have access to these services. A survey of the distribution of services on the detailed maps of Yazd city indicates the inappropriate distribution of many urban services in the city. In addition, the physical expansion without the city's plan has led to some services far from the city's population centers, leading to difficult access. To begin, the analysis of the distribution of health care services shows that 8.5 percent of the city's area has a very poor distribution and 14.3 percent of the city's area suffers from the poor distribution. Distribution of educational services shows that about 34.7 of the total area of Yazd city is below the average level. Also, the distribution of urban facilities in more than 12.1 per cent of Yazd city level is at poor and very poor levels. Regarding the cultural services, the results suggest that the distribution of these services in 47.8 % of Yazd city is less than the average level. The analysis of the distribution of religious services also suggests that 24.7% of the total area of Yazd city has the average distribution. In the case of sport services, the results showed that the distribution of such services in an area equal to 20.4 percent of the city was at poor and very poor levels. The distribution of transportation services in 23.5% of the total area of Yazd city was average, while in 13 % of the city's area, it was at poor and very poor levels. Also, the distribution of green spaces and parks in an area equal to 10.6 percent of the total area of Yazd urban area was at poor and very poor levels.
The spatial distribution of services on the map shows that religious services have been mostly focused in the center of the city, where the primary nucleus of Yazd has been located; as we get far from the center of city, the concentration of religious services is reduced. The distribution of the main services in 11 % of the city's area is at a poor level. The distribution of services in 21 % of the city’s surface area is at the average level, while 34 % of the city's area is at the good level; ultimately, an area equivalent to 30 % is at the very good level.
The beginning of any kind of planning leading to the proper distribution of public services in cities lies in identifying the strengths and weaknesses of the distribution in all parts of the city. In this study, the spatial distribution of primary and secondary public services of Yazd in nine main categories (health care, education, religion, culture, green spaces, sports, transportation, urban facilities and urban equipment) were analyzed using GIS software capabilities.
Overall, the results of the study indicated that in 36 percent of the total area of Yazd, public services distribution was average and less. On the other hand, in 66.4 percent of the area of Yazd city, these services were the good and very good levels. The study of the maps of the study also showed that poor and very poor distributions had mostly occurred in the newly developed urban areas. In other words, as we move from the inner regions of the city to the outer ones, the distribution of services tends to be poor and very poor. Finally, it should be noted that to ensure public access to urban services, we need to locate all kinds of public services in the outer and newly developed areas of Yazd in order to ensure spatial justice and appropriate distribution of public services. To sum up, the best spatial distribution was related to green space services and the weakest one belonged to the cultural services.