نوع مقاله : مقاله علمی پژوهشی
1 استاد گروه جغرافیا انسانی دانشگاه تهران
2 دانشیار گروه جغرافیای انسانی دانشگاه تهران
3 کارشناس ارشد جغرافیا و برنامهریزی روستایی دانشگاه تهران
عنوان مقاله [English]
The awareness of environment state and examination of its changes are among the issues having attracted the attention of many researchers during recent years. This tendency has been so strong that it can determine the required changes in management and to present managerial plans in a correct recognition of environment state. Awareness about the consequences of wrong behaviors can decrease their occurrence. Villages are important human settlements having very close connection to the environment, in a way that they mutually influence each other. Most of economic activities in these regions are based on direct relationship with nature. The appearance of villages around the cities is different from other villages because of the different system of settlement relationships and the presence of forces resulting from them. Achieving the rural environmental sustainability is under the influence of public environmental awareness that, in turn, is also affected by various factors. Accordingly, the present study was conducted to examine the environmental awareness of villagers around Yasuj City. The purpose of the study is to analyze environmental awareness of villagers living in the suburbs of Yasuj City.
The present study has an analytical-descriptive method. The first step in the environmental awareness evaluation was to prepare the criteria. To have an effective evaluation, it is required to determine measureable, scientific and acceptable factors by researchers and experts in this study. The indices and variables of the study were selected based on the opinions of professors and researchers in the field of rural studies in accordance with the region under study and with consideration of the theoretical bases and the review of related literature in the environmental awareness and behavior domains. The environmental awareness and tendency to destroy natural resources were evaluated using 11 and 2 variables, respectively. The study population was settlements around Yasuj City. Ten villages were selected among all the villages around the city using randomized cluster sampling. Cochran formula was used to determine the size of the sample population. Accordingly, 384 households were selected to complete the questionnaires. In order to evaluate the reliability of the data, we used Cronbach’s alpha. Results showed that the questionnaire has an appropriate reliability.
Results and discussion
By examining the status of environmental awareness in the villages under study, it can be understood that these settlements have coefficient of 22.3 and a medium sustainability. Results of coefficient analysis showed that there is significantly negative correlation between the environmental awareness and respondents’ age. There is no significant relationship between environmental awareness and respondents’ gender. There is a significantly positive relationship between environmental awareness and respondents’ education level. Furthermore, results of correlation analysis showed that there is a significantly negative relationship between inhabitants’ environmental awareness level and the tendency to destroy the nature. The highest average belongs to the variable “If the way of treating nature is not adjusted, the environment will face disaster”, and lowest average belongs to the variable “The most important factor in Ozone layer depletion is Carbon dioxide gas”.
This study has evaluated the status of environmental awareness within rural settlements around Yasuj City. Environmental awareness is the individual’s information about environmental issues as well as the factors influencing their spread and recognition of proper treatment to obviate them. Operationally, environmental awareness includes people’s information regarding the importance and role of environment in their life. Villages are faced with many environmental problems and some of the most common problems are including improper way of collecting the rubbish and its disposal, providing potable water, water treatment networks, cutting the trees, putting jungles on fire and etc. Generally, the best instruments to enlighten rural societies, promote publics sensitivity, attention and knowledge about environmental aspects is to educate them on environment which is very important regarding the influence of humans on the environment. Therefore, if the inhabitants are lacking environmental awareness, unregulated exploitation from surrounding natural resources will play a fundamental role in creation of environmental damages.
After analyzing the results, it was found that 53 percent of the respondents have a higher level of environmental awareness than the median level; and 47 percent of them have a lower level of awareness than the median level. This shows that rural settlements are on a median level of environmental awareness. The results are in line with the results presented by Cruise et al. (2014). On the other hand, the findings are inconsistent with the findings of Saho et al. (2015) and Sanjai (2013). In addition, regarding the gender of the respondents and their environmental awareness, the findings of the present study disapprove the findings of Blaji (2017). As a fact, villagers’ environmental awareness plays an important role in achieving rural environmental sustainable development.
16. Izadi, F., Karimeian, A. A., and Suodaiezadeh, H., 2013, Estimation of Environmental Knowledge of Rural Students and its Relationship to Parent and Teacher Knowledge Case Study: Students in the Guidance Course in the Villages of Isfahan, Rural Research, No. 4. PP. 777-792. (In Persian)
17. Barimanie, F., and Asghary, S., 2010, Determination of Environmental inconstancy of Rural Settlements of Sistan Using Multi-Criteria Assessment Model, Journal of Geography and Development, Vol. 19, No. 8, PP. 127-144. (In Persian)
18. Bazrafshan, J., Toulabinejad, M., and Esteiky, H., 2018, The Effects of Sense of Spatial Property on Spatial-Physical Reconstruction of Rural Settlements (Case Study: Neh Village, Nehbandan City), Journal of Human Geography Research, Vol. 50, No. 4. PP. 791-807. (In Persian)
19. Hejazi, R., Rajabdari, H., and Khanizelan, A., 2017, The Relationship Between Environmental Knowledge and Attitude of Accounting Students and Graduates, Journal of Accounting Reviews, Vol. 14, No. 16, PP. 53-72. (In Persian)
20. Khani, kh., 2017, Fundamentals of Planning in Rural Spaces, First Edition, Tehran University Press, Tehran. (In Persian)
21. Khageh Shahkouie, A., Najafi Kani, A. A., and Vesal, Z., 2015, Investigating Factors Affecting Rural Environmental Awareness (Case Study: Jaghargh Village in Binalood Township), Rural Research and Planning, Vol. 9, No. 4, PP. 85-96. (In Persian)
22. Shobeiry, M., Gholipour, S., and Adinehvand, M., 2015, The Relationship Between Knowledge, Attitude and Supportive Behavior of Female Students of Qom University, Environmental Education and Sustainable Development, Vol. 4, No 4, PP. 5-16. (In Persian)
23. Sotudeh, A., and Pour Asghar Sangachin, F., 2010, Investigating the Reports of Environmental Sustainability and Performance Indicators for 2004-2005 and the Position of Iran, Journal of Environment and Development, Vol. 1, No. 1, PP. 51-72. (In Persian)
24. Sojase Gheydari, H., and Faal Jalaleh, A., 2018, Rural Environmental Awareness and Behavior (Case Study: Zanglanloo Village), Journal of Spatial Planning, Vol. 1, No. 8, PP. 29-50. (In Persian)
25. Shobeiry, S. M., 2015, Specialized Language of Environmental Education, Payame Noor University diffusions, Tehran. (In Persian)
26. Salehi, S., and Emamgholy, L., 2012, Experimental Study of the Relationship between Knowledge and Environmental Behaviors (Study of Urban and Rural Areas of Sanandaj City), Iranian Social Issues, Vol. 1, No. 3, PP. 121-147. (In Persian)
27. Salehi, N., and Koushafar, A., 2014, Investigating the level Of Environmental Awareness of Female Teachers, Journal of Women and Culture, Vol. 21, No. 6, PP. 105-118. (In Persian)
28. Fazelneia, Gh., and Roknaldin Eftekhary, A., 2005, A Theoretical Explanation of Factors Influencing Villagers' Knowledge and Awareness of Their Abilities and Environment, Planning and Space Preparation, Vol. 1, No. 9, PP. 111-150. (In Persian)
29. Moohamadi Karbalaie, Z., and Agelie, A., 2015, Explaining the Rural Girls' Awareness of Environmental Protection in Sustainable Development (Case Study: Daghaghlee Village), Environmental Science and Engineering, Vol. 1, No. 3, PP. 55-68. (In Persian)
30. Hoshmandan Maghadamfard, Z., and Akhbar Esmaieli, Sh. A., 2015, Effective Factors on Environmental Knowledge of Zanjan Agricultural Students, Agricultural Education Management Research, No. 37. PP. 73-84. (In Persian)
31. Ahmad, J., Noor, S., and Ismail, N., 2015, Investigating Students’ Environmental Knowledge, Attitude, Practice and Communication, Asian Social Science, No. 11. PP. 284-293.
32. Balaji, P. S., and Anbalagan, A., 2017, A Study on Environmental Awareness Among Rural and Urban Secondary School Students in Thiruvallur District, Internation Eductional Sclentific Research Journal, Vol. 6, No. 3, PP. 26-31.
33. Bulatović, J., and Rajović, G., 2018, Environmental Awareness Population in City Municipality of Zvezdara (Belgrade) for the Sustainable Zvezdarske Forest, World News of Natural Sciences, No. 16. PP. 1-17.
34. Cruz Soto, R., Balderrama, T., Vélez-Sánchezverin, SC., Aguilar-Palma, N., Viramontes-Olivas, O., and Durán, A., 2014, Environmental Awareness of the Young in a Rural Community in the Sierra Tarahumara, Chihuahua, Mexico, Journal of Education and Practice, Vol. 4, No. 5, PP. 197-201.
35. Elfving, M., and Ristimäki, S., 2011, Environmental Education in Rural Development, A Case Study in Mecubúri District, Mozambique, Master’s Thesis in Peace and Development Work, School of Social Sciences, PP. 1-103.
36. Julie, E. S., 2007, From Intentions to Actions: The Role of Environmental Awareness on College Students, Journal of Undergraduate Research, Faculty Sponsor: Tracie Blumentritt, Department of Psychology, PP. 1-4.
37. Kumar, S., 2013, Environmental Awareness Among Rural Folks of Hamirpur District, H.P, The International Journal of Engineering and Science (IJES), Vol. 1, No. 2, PP. 81-84.
38. Rifkin, J., 2006, European Dream, as the European Vision of the Future Slowly Overshadows the American Dream, Zagreb, Školska Knjiga.
39. Sahu, U., Roy, M., and Monika, R., 2015, Environmental Awareness Among Undergraduate Students in Rural Area, IOSR Journal of Environmental Science, Toxicology and Food Technology (IOSR-JESTFT), Vol. 4, No.1, PP. 27-32.
40. Sosa, M., Alcalá, R., Soto, T., and Quintana, C., 2008, Percepción Ambiental De Estudiantes Universitarios a Través De Variables Medioambientales, Revista Latinoamericana De Recursos Naturales, No. 4. PP. 178-184.
41. Vasudevan, S., 2012, A Study on the Extent of Environmental Awareness Among Rural People in Coastal Area of Kerala, Environment and Sustainable Development, Vol. 2, No. 11, PP. 194-205.