سنجش و تحلیل وضعیت آگاهی محیط‌زیستی در سکونتگاه‌های روستایی پیرامون شهر یاسوج

نوع مقاله: مقاله علمی پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استاد گروه جغرافیا انسانی دانشگاه تهران

2 دانشیار گروه جغرافیای انسانی دانشگاه تهران

3 کارشناس ارشد جغرافیا و برنامه‌ریزی روستایی دانشگاه تهران

چکیده

دستیابی به پایداری محیط‌زیستی روستایی متأثر از سطح آگاهی محیط‌زیستی افراد است. آگاهی محیط‌زیستی نیز از عوامل متعددی تأثیرپذیر است. پژوهش توصیفی-تحلیلی و پیمایشی حاضر با هدف سنجش و تحلیل آگاهی محیط‌زیستی در روستاهای پیرامون شهر یاسوج انجام شده است. اطلاعات مورد نیاز به‌کمک روش‌های میدانی (پرسشنامه و مصاحبه)، اسنادی و مراجعه به سازمان‌های مرتبط جمع‌آوری شده است. جامعه آماری پژوهش خانوارهای روستایی ساکن روستاهای پیرامون شهر یاسوج هستند که براساس فرمول کوکران 384 خانوار در 10 سکونتگاه روستایی به‌صورت تصادفی سنجیده شدند. هم‌بستگی میان آگاهی محیط‌زیستی و سن پاسخگویان نشان‌دهندة رابطه‌ای منفی و معنادار است. سنجش رابطة میان آگاهی و جنسیت پاسخگویان نیز نشان‌دهندة نبود رابطة معنادار است. درحالی‌که میان آگاهی محیط‌زیستی و سطح تحصیلات پاسخگویان رابطه‌ای مثبت و معنادار وجود دارد. همچنین نتایج تحلیل هم‌بستگی نشان می‌دهد میان سطح آگاهی محیط‌زیستی ساکنان و گرایش به تخریب محیط طبیعی رابطه‌ای منفی و معنادار وجود دارد به‌طورکلی نتایج پژوهش نشان می‌دهد آگاهی محیط‌زیستی روستاییان در سکونتگاه‌های پیرامون شهر یاسوج در سطح متوسطی قرار دارد. با توجه به مشاهداتی که از منطقة مورد مطالعه به‌دست آمد، به‌نظر می‌رسد تصور ساکنان از مشکلات محیط‌زیستی بیشتر متأثر از تجربه‌های روزمره است. از سوی دیگر، اقدامات مردم و وضع محیط‌زیست سطح متوسطی از آگاهی محیط‌زیستی را در منطقة مورد مطالعه نشان نمی‌دهد؛ یعنی میان نگرش و عمل در رفتارهای محیط‌زیستی شکاف عمیقی وجود دارد.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Evaluation and analysis of environmental awareness in rural settlements around Yasuj city

نویسندگان [English]

  • Fazileh Khani 1
  • Moohamad Salmani 2
  • Enayat Moshfeqnejadi 3
1 University of Tehran - Faculty of Geography - Human Geography Department - Geography and Rural Planning
2 Assistant Professor of Human Geography, Faculty of Geography, University of Tehran
3 University of Tehran - Faculty of Geography - Human Geography Department - Geography and Rural Planning
چکیده [English]

Evaluation and analysis of environmental awareness in rural settlements around Yasuj city
Abstract
Achieving the rural environmental sustainability is under the influence of people’s environmental awareness and this environmental awareness is itself affected by various factors. The rural settlements' importance comes from their interaction and connection with their surrounding environment. Among these rural settlements, the ones around the cities are of great significance. The present study was conducted, based on analytical- descriptive and survey methods, to analyze and evaluate the environmental awareness in the suburbs of Yasuj city. The data required for this survey was gathered through field methods (questionnaire and interview), documents, and referring to respective institutions. The population involved in the study are the rural families in the suburbs of Yasuj city. These 384 families were selected from 10 rural settlements and examined using cluster and random sampling methods. While the correlation between the environmental awareness and the respondents’ age is significantly negative, between the environmental awareness and the respondents’ gender, no significant relationship was found. Between the environmental awareness and the respondents’ education level, results showed a significantly positive relationship. Furthermore, results of the correlation analysis showed that there is a significantly negative relationship between the inhabitants’ environmental awareness level and their tendency to destroy the nature.

Key words: Development, environment, Environmental awareness, Sustainability evaluation, Rural settlements.
Extended Abstract
Introduction
The awareness of environment state and examination of its changes tendency are among issues that have been the focus of many researchers’ attention during recent years. This tendency has been so strong that in order to determine the required changes in management and to present managerial plans a correct recognition of environment state plays a very important role. Awareness about the consequences of wrong behaviors can decrease such behaviors. Villages are one of the most important humans’ settlements and they have a very close connection to the environment, in a way that they mutually influence each other. Most of economic activities in these regions are based on direct relationship with nature. The appearance of villages around cities are different from other villages because of the different system of settlement relationships and the presence of forces resulting from cities. Achieving the rural environmental sustainability is under influence of people’s environmental awareness and the environmental awareness is also affected by various factors. Accordingly, the present study was conducted to examine the environmental awareness of villagers around Yasuj city. In doing so, the following question was posed:
- What is the status of environmental awareness of villagers living in the suburbs of Yasuj city?
Methodology
The present study is an analytical-descriptive study. The first step of environmental awareness evaluation was preparing the criteria. To have an effective evaluation, determining measureable, scientific and acceptable to researchers and experts is one of the requirements of this study. The indices and variables of the study were selected based on the opinions of professors and researchers in the field of rural studies in accordance to the region under study and with consideration of the theoretical bases and the review of related literature in the environmental awareness and behavior domains. The environmental awareness and tendency to destroy natural resources were evaluated using 11 and 2 variables, respectively. The study population was settlements around Yasuj city. Ten villages were selected among all the villages around Yasuj using randomized cluster sampling. Cochran formula was used to determine the size of sample population. Accordingly, 384 households were selected to complete the questionnaires. In order to evaluate the reliability of the data, Cronbach’s alpha was used. Results showed that the questionnaire has an appropriate reliability.
Results
By examining the status of environmental awareness in the villages under study, it can be understood that these settlements have a medium sustainability with 22.3 coefficient. Results of coefficient analysis showed that between the environmental awareness and respondents’ age there is significantly negative correlation. Between environmental awareness and respondents’ gender, there is no significant relationship. Between environmental awareness and respondents’ education level, there is a significantly positive relationship. Furthermore, results of correlation analysis showed that there is a significantly negative relationship between inhabitants’ environmental awareness level and the tendency to destroy the nature. The highest average belongs to “If the way of treating nature is not adjusted, the environment will face disaster” variable, and lowest average belongs to “The most important factor in Ozone layer depletion is Carbon dioxide gas” variable.
Discussion
The goal of this study was to evaluate the status of environmental awareness within rural settlements around Yasuj city. Environmental awareness is the individuals’ information about environmental issues, factors influencing their spread and recognition of proper treatment to obviate them. Operationally, environmental awareness includes people’s information regarding the importance and role of environment in their life. Villages are faced with many environmental problems and some of the most common problems are improper way of collecting the rubbish and its disposal, providing potable water, water treatment networks, cutting the trees, putting jungles on fire and etc. Generally, the best means to enlighten rural societies, promote publics sensitivity, attention and knowledge about environmental aspects is to educate them on environment which is very important regarding the influence of humans on environment. Thus, if the inhabitants are lacking regarding environmental awareness, unregulated exploitation from surrounding natural resources will play a fundamental role in creation of environmental damages.
Conclusion
After analyzing the results, it was found that 53 percent of the respondents have a higher level of environmental awareness than the median level; and 47 percent of them have a lower level of awareness than the median level. This shows that rural settlements are on a median level of environmental awareness. The results are in line with the results released by Cruise et al. (2014). On the other hand, the findings are contradictory to the findings of Saho et al. (2015) and Sanjai (2013). In addition, regarding the gender of the respondents and their environmental awareness the findings of the present study contradict the findings of Blaji (2017). As a fact, villagers’ environmental awareness plays an important role in achieving rural environmental sustainable development.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Development
  • environment
  • Environmental awareness
  • Sustainability evaluation
  • rural settlements
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