عنوان مقاله [English]
Evaluation and analysis of environmental awareness in rural settlements around Yasuj city
Achieving the rural environmental sustainability is under the influence of people’s environmental awareness and this environmental awareness is itself affected by various factors. The rural settlements' importance comes from their interaction and connection with their surrounding environment. Among these rural settlements, the ones around the cities are of great significance. The present study was conducted, based on analytical- descriptive and survey methods, to analyze and evaluate the environmental awareness in the suburbs of Yasuj city. The data required for this survey was gathered through field methods (questionnaire and interview), documents, and referring to respective institutions. The population involved in the study are the rural families in the suburbs of Yasuj city. These 384 families were selected from 10 rural settlements and examined using cluster and random sampling methods. While the correlation between the environmental awareness and the respondents’ age is significantly negative, between the environmental awareness and the respondents’ gender, no significant relationship was found. Between the environmental awareness and the respondents’ education level, results showed a significantly positive relationship. Furthermore, results of the correlation analysis showed that there is a significantly negative relationship between the inhabitants’ environmental awareness level and their tendency to destroy the nature.
Key words: Development, environment, Environmental awareness, Sustainability evaluation, Rural settlements.
The awareness of environment state and examination of its changes tendency are among issues that have been the focus of many researchers’ attention during recent years. This tendency has been so strong that in order to determine the required changes in management and to present managerial plans a correct recognition of environment state plays a very important role. Awareness about the consequences of wrong behaviors can decrease such behaviors. Villages are one of the most important humans’ settlements and they have a very close connection to the environment, in a way that they mutually influence each other. Most of economic activities in these regions are based on direct relationship with nature. The appearance of villages around cities are different from other villages because of the different system of settlement relationships and the presence of forces resulting from cities. Achieving the rural environmental sustainability is under influence of people’s environmental awareness and the environmental awareness is also affected by various factors. Accordingly, the present study was conducted to examine the environmental awareness of villagers around Yasuj city. In doing so, the following question was posed:
- What is the status of environmental awareness of villagers living in the suburbs of Yasuj city?
The present study is an analytical-descriptive study. The first step of environmental awareness evaluation was preparing the criteria. To have an effective evaluation, determining measureable, scientific and acceptable to researchers and experts is one of the requirements of this study. The indices and variables of the study were selected based on the opinions of professors and researchers in the field of rural studies in accordance to the region under study and with consideration of the theoretical bases and the review of related literature in the environmental awareness and behavior domains. The environmental awareness and tendency to destroy natural resources were evaluated using 11 and 2 variables, respectively. The study population was settlements around Yasuj city. Ten villages were selected among all the villages around Yasuj using randomized cluster sampling. Cochran formula was used to determine the size of sample population. Accordingly, 384 households were selected to complete the questionnaires. In order to evaluate the reliability of the data, Cronbach’s alpha was used. Results showed that the questionnaire has an appropriate reliability.
By examining the status of environmental awareness in the villages under study, it can be understood that these settlements have a medium sustainability with 22.3 coefficient. Results of coefficient analysis showed that between the environmental awareness and respondents’ age there is significantly negative correlation. Between environmental awareness and respondents’ gender, there is no significant relationship. Between environmental awareness and respondents’ education level, there is a significantly positive relationship. Furthermore, results of correlation analysis showed that there is a significantly negative relationship between inhabitants’ environmental awareness level and the tendency to destroy the nature. The highest average belongs to “If the way of treating nature is not adjusted, the environment will face disaster” variable, and lowest average belongs to “The most important factor in Ozone layer depletion is Carbon dioxide gas” variable.
The goal of this study was to evaluate the status of environmental awareness within rural settlements around Yasuj city. Environmental awareness is the individuals’ information about environmental issues, factors influencing their spread and recognition of proper treatment to obviate them. Operationally, environmental awareness includes people’s information regarding the importance and role of environment in their life. Villages are faced with many environmental problems and some of the most common problems are improper way of collecting the rubbish and its disposal, providing potable water, water treatment networks, cutting the trees, putting jungles on fire and etc. Generally, the best means to enlighten rural societies, promote publics sensitivity, attention and knowledge about environmental aspects is to educate them on environment which is very important regarding the influence of humans on environment. Thus, if the inhabitants are lacking regarding environmental awareness, unregulated exploitation from surrounding natural resources will play a fundamental role in creation of environmental damages.
After analyzing the results, it was found that 53 percent of the respondents have a higher level of environmental awareness than the median level; and 47 percent of them have a lower level of awareness than the median level. This shows that rural settlements are on a median level of environmental awareness. The results are in line with the results released by Cruise et al. (2014). On the other hand, the findings are contradictory to the findings of Saho et al. (2015) and Sanjai (2013). In addition, regarding the gender of the respondents and their environmental awareness the findings of the present study contradict the findings of Blaji (2017). As a fact, villagers’ environmental awareness plays an important role in achieving rural environmental sustainable development.
16. Izadi, F., Karimeian, A. A., and Suodaiezadeh, H., 2013, Estimation of Environmental Knowledge of Rural Students and its Relationship to Parent and Teacher Knowledge Case Study: Students in the Guidance Course in the Villages of Isfahan, Rural Research, No. 4. PP. 777-792. (In Persian)
17. Barimanie, F., and Asghary, S., 2010, Determination of Environmental inconstancy of Rural Settlements of Sistan Using Multi-Criteria Assessment Model, Journal of Geography and Development, Vol. 19, No. 8, PP. 127-144. (In Persian)
18. Bazrafshan, J., Toulabinejad, M., and Esteiky, H., 2018, The Effects of Sense of Spatial Property on Spatial-Physical Reconstruction of Rural Settlements (Case Study: Neh Village, Nehbandan City), Journal of Human Geography Research, Vol. 50, No. 4. PP. 791-807. (In Persian)
19. Hejazi, R., Rajabdari, H., and Khanizelan, A., 2017, The Relationship Between Environmental Knowledge and Attitude of Accounting Students and Graduates, Journal of Accounting Reviews, Vol. 14, No. 16, PP. 53-72. (In Persian)
20. Khani, kh., 2017, Fundamentals of Planning in Rural Spaces, First Edition, Tehran University Press, Tehran. (In Persian)
21. Khageh Shahkouie, A., Najafi Kani, A. A., and Vesal, Z., 2015, Investigating Factors Affecting Rural Environmental Awareness (Case Study: Jaghargh Village in Binalood Township), Rural Research and Planning, Vol. 9, No. 4, PP. 85-96. (In Persian)
22. Shobeiry, M., Gholipour, S., and Adinehvand, M., 2015, The Relationship Between Knowledge, Attitude and Supportive Behavior of Female Students of Qom University, Environmental Education and Sustainable Development, Vol. 4, No 4, PP. 5-16. (In Persian)
23. Sotudeh, A., and Pour Asghar Sangachin, F., 2010, Investigating the Reports of Environmental Sustainability and Performance Indicators for 2004-2005 and the Position of Iran, Journal of Environment and Development, Vol. 1, No. 1, PP. 51-72. (In Persian)
24. Sojase Gheydari, H., and Faal Jalaleh, A., 2018, Rural Environmental Awareness and Behavior (Case Study: Zanglanloo Village), Journal of Spatial Planning, Vol. 1, No. 8, PP. 29-50. (In Persian)
25. Shobeiry, S. M., 2015, Specialized Language of Environmental Education, Payame Noor University diffusions, Tehran. (In Persian)
26. Salehi, S., and Emamgholy, L., 2012, Experimental Study of the Relationship between Knowledge and Environmental Behaviors (Study of Urban and Rural Areas of Sanandaj City), Iranian Social Issues, Vol. 1, No. 3, PP. 121-147. (In Persian)
27. Salehi, N., and Koushafar, A., 2014, Investigating the level Of Environmental Awareness of Female Teachers, Journal of Women and Culture, Vol. 21, No. 6, PP. 105-118. (In Persian)
28. Fazelneia, Gh., and Roknaldin Eftekhary, A., 2005, A Theoretical Explanation of Factors Influencing Villagers' Knowledge and Awareness of Their Abilities and Environment, Planning and Space Preparation, Vol. 1, No. 9, PP. 111-150. (In Persian)
29. Moohamadi Karbalaie, Z., and Agelie, A., 2015, Explaining the Rural Girls' Awareness of Environmental Protection in Sustainable Development (Case Study: Daghaghlee Village), Environmental Science and Engineering, Vol. 1, No. 3, PP. 55-68. (In Persian)
30. Hoshmandan Maghadamfard, Z., and Akhbar Esmaieli, Sh. A., 2015, Effective Factors on Environmental Knowledge of Zanjan Agricultural Students, Agricultural Education Management Research, No. 37. PP. 73-84. (In Persian)
31. Ahmad, J., Noor, S., and Ismail, N., 2015, Investigating Students’ Environmental Knowledge, Attitude, Practice and Communication, Asian Social Science, No. 11. PP. 284-293.
32. Balaji, P. S., and Anbalagan, A., 2017, A Study on Environmental Awareness Among Rural and Urban Secondary School Students in Thiruvallur District, Internation Eductional Sclentific Research Journal, Vol. 6, No. 3, PP. 26-31.
33. Bulatović, J., and Rajović, G., 2018, Environmental Awareness Population in City Municipality of Zvezdara (Belgrade) for the Sustainable Zvezdarske Forest, World News of Natural Sciences, No. 16. PP. 1-17.
34. Cruz Soto, R., Balderrama, T., Vélez-Sánchezverin, SC., Aguilar-Palma, N., Viramontes-Olivas, O., and Durán, A., 2014, Environmental Awareness of the Young in a Rural Community in the Sierra Tarahumara, Chihuahua, Mexico, Journal of Education and Practice, Vol. 4, No. 5, PP. 197-201.
35. Elfving, M., and Ristimäki, S., 2011, Environmental Education in Rural Development, A Case Study in Mecubúri District, Mozambique, Master’s Thesis in Peace and Development Work, School of Social Sciences, PP. 1-103.
36. Julie, E. S., 2007, From Intentions to Actions: The Role of Environmental Awareness on College Students, Journal of Undergraduate Research, Faculty Sponsor: Tracie Blumentritt, Department of Psychology, PP. 1-4.
37. Kumar, S., 2013, Environmental Awareness Among Rural Folks of Hamirpur District, H.P, The International Journal of Engineering and Science (IJES), Vol. 1, No. 2, PP. 81-84.
38. Rifkin, J., 2006, European Dream, as the European Vision of the Future Slowly Overshadows the American Dream, Zagreb, Školska Knjiga.
39. Sahu, U., Roy, M., and Monika, R., 2015, Environmental Awareness Among Undergraduate Students in Rural Area, IOSR Journal of Environmental Science, Toxicology and Food Technology (IOSR-JESTFT), Vol. 4, No.1, PP. 27-32.
40. Sosa, M., Alcalá, R., Soto, T., and Quintana, C., 2008, Percepción Ambiental De Estudiantes Universitarios a Través De Variables Medioambientales, Revista Latinoamericana De Recursos Naturales, No. 4. PP. 178-184.
41. Vasudevan, S., 2012, A Study on the Extent of Environmental Awareness Among Rural People in Coastal Area of Kerala, Environment and Sustainable Development, Vol. 2, No. 11, PP. 194-205.